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C. J. Paterson 

Cornell University Library 
F 1059S2 B79 

Township of Scarboro 1796-1896 edited b 


3 1924 028 900 970 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


3 7^ 

Photogi-aphed by J. L. Hughes. 












Zo tbe 
Sons anb Daugbters of Scarboro 

at home and abroad, 

This Book 

is respectfully dedicated 














Scarboro Centennial. 

" One hundred years ! " How easily 'tis said^ 
How slight an effort of the gift of speech ! 
Not many letters to comprise it all. 
A, little child can lisp them o'er with ease, 
But who can grasp the fulness of the time 1 
Or who can measure all that it contains 1 
Its symphonies and mournful cadences, 
Its echoes of the past that thrill the ear, 
That stir the heart to richer, fuller life, 
And cause the pulse to beat with quicker throb 
As we do muse on days that long are past t — 
Days that were bright with honest, sunny smiles, 
Or clouded o'er with sadness, or with pain, — 
Days full of memories of varied scenes 
Illumined by the acts of friendship true 
Of those whose lives were joined to ours in love^ 
But who have left us for a little while, 
Until the call to us shall also come 
To enter on a higher, nobler life 
That knows no end, that is not measured by 
A term of years, but where ten thousand times 
Ten thousand centuries are but a drop 
In the vast ocean of eternity ! 

— R. Davidson, Ingleside. 


ONE hundred years ago to-day, Eobert Burns had 
but a few weeks to live ; Thomas Carlyle had 
spent only six months of discontent in this world ; 
Napoleon Bonaparte had just assumed command of 
the army of Italy, and was no doubt even then forming 
plans for the conquest of Europe ; the United States 
was in its infancy, with General Washington as Pre- 
sident; General Prescott was Governor of Canada; 
Simcoe was at the head of affairs in Upper Canada, 
Newark being still the capital ; and George the Third 
reigned, King of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The year 1795 had proved one of great agricultural 
depression in the British Islands. Peace prospects 
were slender ; business was unsteady, when not actu- 
ally stagnant ; labor, consequently, was not in much 
demand, and famine stared thousands in the face. 
In such circumstances it was but natural that many 
persons, especially the more adventurous and enter- 
prising, should look abroad for that measure of comfort 
and success, the prospects of attaining which seemed 
to be so uncertain and so distant at home. Of this 
class, as is hereinafter recorded, were the very first 
settlers in Scarboro. 

It is in commemoration of this settlement, and at 
such a time, that the people of Scarboro have had the 
present modest volume prepared in connection with 
their celebration, the object being to bring together 


in a handy form the various records of local events 
a,nd bits of personal reminiscence, many of which, in 
course of time, would otherwise be lost or forgotten. 

The time is past when history was supposed to be 
merely a record of political events, of campaigns in the 
field of war, and of great discoveries. Important as 
these are, they do not by any means constitute the 
sum total of history ; and hence we find considerable 
attention now being given to sociological features in 
the growth of nations ; and as nations are but aggre- 
gations of communities, it would seem that intelligent 
citizenship implies a knowledge of facts pertaining 
to the development of institutions and industries in 
young settlements of modern, as well as of ancient 

In most townships, the people as a whole, or groups 
of them, have much in common regarding origin and 
circumstances ; and as time advances, general interests 
become mingled through marriage, business, and social 
relations. Such municipalities, therefore, almost natur- 
ally suggest themselves as fields for the convenient 
grouping of local records. 

The plan followed in this book is to present the 
subject under separate heads rather than as a con- 
tinuous narrative, and no attempt has been made to 
produce anything but a bare statement of facts, beyond 
supplying introductions to the chapters, and such 
connective passages to the information collected as 
seemed necessary to put the material in tolerably 
readable form. 

When the writer undertook, quite unexpectedly, to 
perform this work, he feared his ability to complete it 
in the time at his disposal, and for this reason felt 


himself fortunate in gaining the ready assistance of 
two well-known literary ladies, both of whom are 
deeply interested in everything that relates to Canada 
and Canadian history, local as well as general. 

Mrs. S. A. Curzon,* President of the Woman's 
Canadian Historical Society, has prepared the chap- 
ters on " Domestic Life," " Churches and Ministers," 
" Societies," and the chapter relating to the Centennial 
proceedings. Miss M. A. FitzGribbon,t Secretary of 
same organization, has written the chapter devoted to 
militia matters, and that containing brief references to 
pioneers and their families. The work of each lady 
will speak for itself 

Collected as the information was, somewhat hur- 
riedly, by the committees appointed for this purpose, it 
is quite certain that numerous omissions, and perhaps 
some errors, will be noticeable. In the face of many 
difficulties, however, and the expenditure of much 
time, the committees performed their work well, and 
it is only fair to state that special thanks are due to 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee, Rev. D. B. 
Macdonald, without whose untiring efforts, and excel- 
lent organizing ability, it would have been impossible 
at this juncture to bring together the material required 
for the memorial volume, now fully twice its originally 
intended size. To him also the editor is indebted for 
much of the information contained in several of the 
chapters, and for valuable assistance rendered in vari- 
ous other ways. Messrs. J. C. Clark, David Martin, 

* Mrs. Curzon is the author of " Laura Secord, a Drama, and other 
Poems," and many short addresses and papers on historical subjects. 

tMiss FitzGibbon is the author of "A Veteran of 1812," "Home 
Work," "A Trip to Manitoba," and several magazine articles. 


Dr. O. Sisley, A. W. Forfar, J. C. Cornell, K. Malcolm, 
and A. J. Reynolds, all supplied admirable epitomes, 
either of general subjects, or concerning the several 
districts they represented. 

To Mr. Clark also is due the credit of having photo- 
graphed most of the views that are reproduced in the 

It should be mentioned that the poems given at 
length are by natives, or former residents of the 

It is much to be desired that every other township 
in the Province should take steps to crystallize in type 
the knowledge that now exists chiefly in the memories 
of the oldest people, and to bring together the num- 
erous scattered references to municipalities, as these 
may exist in writing or in print. 

That this embodiment of what relates to Scarboro 

will in some degree meet with the approval of those 

for whom it is more particularly intended is the sincere 

hope of the editor, 

David Boyle. 
Toronto, June 10th, 1896. 




Topography and Geology 9 

Before the White Man 19 

Foundation and Settlement 25 

The Pioneers 29 

On the Farm 63 

Domestic Life - - 100 

Roads 112 

Councils and Councillors 117 

Trades and Tradesmen 126 

^"^— - 

Churches and Ministers 136 

Schools and Teachers - 177 

chapter xii. 

Public Libraries 



Doctors and Lawyers ^^^ 

Societies ^^' 

Public-houses and Stores 220 

Villages and Post-offices 223 

Militia 228 

Birds and Beasts 238 

Games and Sports 241 

Odds and Ends 262 

The Centennial Celebration 272 

Appendix A 285 

Appendix B 292 

Appendix 293 

Poetry — 

Scarboro Centennial iv 

The Land of the Bracing North 62 

The Canadian Backwoodsman 99 



ScARBORO Heights Frontispiece. 

Old Settlers 29 

Oldest Living Residents 48 


Typical Buildings — Old and Recent 74 

Prize Ploughmen 86 

Old Councillors 117 

Recent Municipal Officers 125 

Ministers 136 

Presbyterian Churches 148 

Episcopalian Churches 157 

Roman Catholic Church ; 157 

Methodist Churches 166 

Old Teachers and Old Doctors 177 

Schools 188 

ScARBORo's Defenders 228 

Curlers of 1835 243 

Curlers and Quoiters 249 

Checker Champion 256 

Scenes in Scarboro - 262 

Map of Scarboro 285 


Read mode instead of " ceded," third line from foot of page^28. 
Read folk instead of "folks,'' third line from foot of page 98. 

,.3 "??, 5SS£^ 




' ' In Nature's infinite book of secrecy 
A little I can read." — Shakespeare. 

APPEOACHING Scarboro from Lake Ontario, 
one cannot but be struck with the boldness of 
the shore line, as compared with the rest of the coast, 
both east and west of this township. The cliffs, or 
Heights, as they are called, consist of boulder-clay 
and sand, somewhat irregularly stratified, forming 
what is known geologically as "drift," that is, the 
result of interglacial deposition during indefinite 
periods, in some equally indefinite past, when ice-fields 
spread themselves over the northern part of the con- 
tinent, sending immense branches as far south as the 
state of Kentucky. On no other portion of the north 
shore of Ontario can the phenomena of such deposits 
be better studied than along the face of this cliff from 
Port Union westwards to Victoria Park. 

In a paper* read before the Toronto Mechanics' 

* The paper appears in the Monthly Review, of June, 1841, published 

in Toronto at that time, but subsequently removed to Kingston, which had 

been chosen as the capital. This number of the magazine was brought to 

light by Mr. J. C. Clark, of Agincourt, and by him kindly lent for perusal. 


10 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Institute in 1841, by Mr. John Eoy, Civil Engineer, 
on " Toronto Harbour," the writer referring to a time 
when he claims "that the whole of the waters from 
the west, including the Mississippi waters, were dis- 
charged by the .Niagara Kiver, and through Lake 
Ontario, up to the period Lake Ontario subsided to its 
present level," and when, "therefore the quantity of 
water which flowed through the chasm must have 
been more than double what it is at present," expresses 
his belief that the current acting on the bottom of the 
lake was sufficiently powerful "to throw up the 
materials excavated on the north shore," and that as 
the level of the lake gradually fell, a series of ridges 
was thus formed, until the time came when the water 
being only some 200 feet above its present level, gave 
the Niagara current "a vastly greater power to act upon 
the bottom of the lake than any of the three former 
subsidations ; for the current had not only a greater 
downward bend, but also the waters of the lake were 
greatly reduced in depth ; consequently, we find 
vastly greater deposits of the excavated materials 
upon the northern shore of this elevation. Those 
heights in Scarboro which project forward \_sic\ to the 
lake, the hill upon which Captain Baldwin's house 
stands, and the ridge upon which Dundas road runs 
along the head of the lake, all belong to this era." 

Mr. Eoy's theory is as bold as it is absurd, but the 
quotation serves to show that more than half a century 
ago attempts were made to account for the existence 
of Scarboro Chffs and other escarpments on the north 

In 1854, Prof. Henry Youle Hind and Mr. Sandford' 
Fleming made a study of the Heights with relation to 
their influence in the formation of Toronto Island, or 

Topography and Geology. 11 

Hiawatha Island, as it has sometimes been called; and 
five 3'ears later, the distinguished Scottish geologist, 
A. C. Eamsay, referred to them in the Journal of the 
Geological Society, but it was not until 1876 that 
something approaching an exhaustive scientifi.c exam- 
ination of Scarboro Heights was carried on by Mr. 
G. J. Hinde, an English geologist spending a few 
years in this country. 

Mr. Hinde believed firmly that the beds of the 
great lakes had been scooped out, through the tre- 
mendous grinding force exerted on the rocks by mov- 
ing ice-fields from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in thickness; but 
it is unnecessary that we should adopt this view in our 
consideration of the facts he reached regarding the 
nature of the cliffs, which are, after all, only a section 
of what constitutes the township at large. He 
writes:* "The present basins of the lakes, however, by 
no means represent all the hollows made in the old 
rocks by the glacial ice; many of these have been 
filled up by till and stratified deposits, and until bor- 
ings are made must remain unknown, t Thus, Dr. 

* Page 12, ' ' The Glacial and Interglacial Strata of Scarboro Heights, 
and other localities near Toronto, Ontario," by Mr. George Jennings 
Hinde. Toronto, 1877. 

t Mr. Hinde was unaware that at least one boring of fully a thousand 
feet had been made near the village of Highland Creek in 1866, when 
an attempt was made to "strike oil. " Unfortunately the log of this boring 
has been lost. Mr. Wm. Helliwell, in whose possession it was, vouches for 
the accuracy of the following statement, from memory: 

Sand and gravel (surface) 5 feet. 

Blue clay 50 " 

Limestone '50 

Soapstone- - 100 " (?) 

Rock salt and cavities 9'?^ 

1,002 " 

12 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Sterry Hunt has shown that the palaeozoic rocks on 
the shores of Lake Erie are covered with glacial and 
stratified clays to a thickness of 100 to 200 feet 
beneath the lake level ; whereas the lake itself in most 
places is not more than 70 feet in depth. There is, 
however, to be considered, the fact that the present 
depth of the lakes is probably very much less than 
their originally excavated depth by the glacier, for 
stratified deposits of clay and silt brought down by 
the rivers, etc., have been gradually accumulating in 
their basins [beds] since the time when the glaciers 
which filled them were dissolved. 

"At the Scarboro Heights there is one of these filled- 
up glacial hollows. The palseozoic rocks were eroded 
by the first glacier deeper than the present lake level : 
without a boring it is impossible to say how deep the 
hollow may have been. With the exception of a short 
distance at both ends of the section and a space in 
the central portion, the basal beds of the Scarboro 
Cliff are composed of beds of stratified clay. 
Before describing the fossils contained in the clay 
beds, I wish to mention the beds of sand and sandy 
loam which rest conformably on the upper surfaces of 
the clayey strata. These sand beds are of a yellowish 
tint ; the strata are horizontal, and appear, like the 
clays, equally free from pebbles or boulders. Their 
maximum thickness shown in the cliff is forty feet, 
but they have evidently been eroded, and in some 
places completely removed, and their original thick- 
ness may have been much greater. 

From this it would appear that Mr. Hinde's theoretical hollow must 
have extended a long way into the lake, and that the deposit would thin 
out nearly to the surface, a little farther inland than this point, for the 
boring was made less than two miles from the lake shore. Several borings 
at intervals of some miles would be necessary to afford the required data. 

Topography and Geology. 13 

"There is thus exposed at the Scarboro Cliff, beds of 
clay and sand of interglacial age, 140 feet in thick- 
ness, leaving out of account the extent to which they 
may reach below the lake level, and the amount which 
may have been eroded from the upper surface." 

The fossil remains found consisted mainly of low 
forms of vegetable and animal life, including soft 
woods, wings of a beetle, two or three crustaceans, 
and two kinds of shells. " Both the plant and animal 
remains so far discovered in these strata conclusively 
show that they are of land and fresh water origin ; 
not a trace of any marine organism has been found in 

Without entering further into details, it may safely 
be assumed from the evidence in our possession, first, 
that the cliffs on the lake shore merely show in part 
the section of a deposit that once extended far away 
into the lake, a portion of which deposit now forms, 
perhaps, the greater part of the township at the south; 
second, that the beds of clay and sand were laid down 
in fresh water ; and third, that the tenacious quality 
of the deposit has enabled it, as a mass, to withstand 
the erosive forces which have carried away the mate- 
rial on the limits of the hollow in which the clays 
were originally laid down — hence the elevation along 
the lake shore. 

The following table has been prepared by Mr. Hinde 
to show the succession of strata forming the Heights : 

7 stratified sand and gravel, post-glacial 

6 till or boulder play 

5 laminated clay and sand, interglacial 

4 till or boulder clay 

3 interglacial fossiliferous sand 

2 " " clay 

1 till or boulder clay, below lake level 


50 feet 






14 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

It will be observed that the total here given exceeds 
by nearly one hundred feet the greatest altitude 
(290 feet) reached by the cliffs, but this is because the 
measurements of the several beds have been taken at 
their thickest parts, and these do not occur immedi- 
ately above or below each other (see diagram, p. 9). 

Close to the lake shore the surface is much broken 
with ravines from fifty to a hundred and fifty feet in 
depth, especially near the south-west angle; and along 
the banks of the Eouge on the eastern side, the sur- 
face is somewhat rugged, but, in general, the town- 
ship may be described as undulating or " rolling. " The 
southern portion is sandy, although with the excellent 
system of farming, for which the township as a whole 
has been so long celebrated, good crops are produced 
close to the lake shore. To the north of this light 
belt the soil becomes heavier, and in some places 
appears as a rich clay. These alternations are just 
what might be expected from the character of the 
deposit that forms the whole or the greater part of the 

Scarboro is well watered. Highland Creek, which 
rises near the north-west corner (in Markham), drains, 
with its numerous branches, fully half of the township, 
traversing a diagonal course and entering the lake at 
Port Union near the south-east corner. The Eouge, 
rising in Markham, also takes a course (with its several 
feeders) from north-west to south-east after entering 
Scarboro, and reaches the lake through Pickering. 
On the west side of the township a branch of the Don 
flows generally southwards until it enters York, where 
it takes a westerly course to join the main stream. 

Springs of pure water are very numerous, and no 

Topography and Geology. 15 

difficulty is experienced in procuring an abundant 
supply at depths of from twelve to seventy feet. On 
lot 14, con. 4, there are two springs which, from an 
early date, have had curative properties attributed to 
them. Grourlay, in 1822, referred to them as 
" medicinal springs," and adds that they " begin to be 
resorted to by persons affected with rheumatism and 
other chronical complaints. An eminent physician of 
York is said to have received much benefit from the 
use of the water."* 

In the neighborhood of EUesmere is a large num- 
ber of springs. On lot 27, con. 2, one close to the 
creek, strongly impregnated with iron, discolors the 
vegetation. A short distance down there is a large 
gushing spring in the bottom of the creek, and on lot 
28 is another, the water of which colors everything 
red. A few rods farther down there is one which some 
years ago was supposed to contain sulphur ; the water 
is very clear but has an unpleasant smell. The creek 
has encroached so much on this spring lately that the 
latter is almost lost to view. For about one-eighth of 
a mile beyond this, numerous springs issue from the 
banks of the stream, and in many places the bottom 
is of a marly nature and so soft that a pole may be 
pushed down six or eight feet. About forty years ago, 
Mr. Andrew Young dug a well on lot 29, con. 1. 
Twenty feet down the workers struck a soft place,, 
and the water rapidly rose several feet to the surface. 
Another well bored twenty feet farther north and a little 
deeper, also filled at once and ran over as did the first, 
and both have continued to flow. These two wells are 
at the head of the west branch of the Highland Creek, 

*" statistical Account of Upper Canada," Vol. I., p. 145. 

16 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

On lot 29, con. 2, there is a flowing well, the water 
of which if confined would rise about five feet above 
the ground. The bore of this one is only about an 
inch and a half, but it is estimated that at least twenty 
thousand gallons of water flow from it daily. Nearly 
one hundred yards to the south-east, on lot 28, is 
another well with an inch and three-quarter pipe, from 
which flow about twenty-five thousand gallons a day. 
It is on ground nearly five feet lower than the former, 
and is eleven feet deeper. 

Numerous springs along the creek on lots 25 and 
26 have dried since the bush was cleared. 

The Oil Company. 

In the year 1866, when the oil fever in Canada 
v?as at its height, the Scarboro Oil Company was 
incorporated with a capital stock of $4,000, which 
was divided into 160 shares of $25 each, to sink a well 
at Highland Creek village. The Board of Management 
consisted of : 

President, Wm. Helliwell. 

Vice-President, Wm. Rolph, Sen. 

Treasurer, Thos. Elliott. 

Secretary, Donald G. Stephenson. 

Messrs. Wm. Helliwell, Wm. Rolph, Sen., D. G. Stephenson, Wm. 
Tredway, Wm. Westney, Geo. Chester, Jerry Annis, Jas. Humphrey 
^nd Andrew Annis. 

Q&he company leased a site for operations from 
Messrs. G-ooderham & Worts and Mr. Wm. HelHwell 
and wife, on lot 8 in the 1st concession of Scarboro, 
ior a term of forty years at a yearly rental of twenty 
cents, beside a royalty of a 160th part of the proceeds. 
The directors made a contract with Mr. Hood, of 

Topography and Geology. 17 

Toronto, to bore to the depth of 1,000 feet. This 
was effected without finding oil, although brine of the 
strongest character was brought up in the sand pump, 
but it was too much impregnated with carbonate of 
lime and of magnesia to be suitable for making salt. 
When the contractor was down about 600 feet, one 
Harry Key, a waggon maker, occasionally poured a 
gallon of oil into the well at night, thus causing con- 
siderable excitement in the neighborhood. It failed 
to occur to Key and others that wells did not yield 
refined oil. 

A difference of opinion having arisen between the 
contractor and the directors as to the depth reached 
by the drill, careful measurements made by Messrs. 
Wm. Tredway and Geo. Chester showed that it had 
penetrated 1,002 feet. It is to be regretted that 
notes of the boring made at the time have been lost, 
and that there is no statement of the analysis of the 
brine. Mr. Helliwell has supplied from memory the 
figures touching the strata passed through, and these 
are given herein on page 11, foot-note. 

Notwithstanding the failure of the company to 
realize their reasonable enough expectations, the 
pluck and public spirit of the stockholders are to be 
commended. Unlike those who hope to find coal in 
Ontario, the Scarboro Oil Company had not only the 
theories of science, but the facts of experience in their 
favor, and failure to strike oil at a thousand feet does 
not prove that petroleum may not exist at even a less 
depth not very far away. That the boring was made 
through- soapstone, would seem to indicate that 
possible oil-bearing rock had been passed. 

In the annual report of the Geological Survey of 

18 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Canada, for 1890-91, Mr. Brummell writes of a "Well 
at Highland Creek": "I have been unable to obtain 
any authentic account of operations at this point, and 
give the following as the result of inquiries made at 
different times and of various persons. The informa- 
tion shows that a well was sunk near this village, 
during either 1866 or 1867, to a depth of 682 feet, 
penetrating the Trenton limestone to a depth of 434 
feet, in which formation it is reported that large 
quantities of gas were struck. 

" The record of the well is reported as follows : 

Surface (blue clay) 48 feet. 

Shale, black, 200 n Hudson R. and Utica. 

Limestone, 434 n Trenton. 

" The fact that this well was at once abandoned 
shows that there was, as is usual in this district, but 
a small flow of gas." 

This statement only renders matters more confusing. 
Not only was gas not sought for when the Highland 
Creek well was bored, but the records of strata pene- 
trated are totally dissimilar and Mr. Brummell's 
figures are little more than two-thirds of those sup- 
plied by Mr. Helliwell (p. 11), whose statement that 
the soapstone penetrated measured one hundred feet 
in thickness, is astounding. No carefulness can be 
too minute in recording particulars relating to deep 
borings, copies of which should be forwarded to the 
Department of the Bureau of Mines, Toronto, and to 
the Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

A complete list of the shareholders of the Scarboro 
Oil Company will be found in the Appendix. Their 
enterprise was a praiseworthy one, and their names 
should not be forgotten. 

Before the White Man. l& 


" Tribe was giving place to tribe, language to language ; for the Indian, 
hopelessly unchanging in respect to individual and social development, 
was, as regards tribal relations and local haunts, unstable as the wind.'' 

— Parkman, 

WHEN Canada was taken possession of by the 
French near the middle of the sixteenth 
century, it is probable that nearly all the peninsula 
formed by the great lakes, and a wide strip extending 
easterly along the shores of Lake Ontario and the 
River St. Lawrence, were occupied by members of the 
powerful Huron-Iroquois Indians ; the rest of the 
territory (forming Upper Canada at a more recent 
date) having been in the hands of the Algonkins, who 
were less disposed to occupy fixed places of abode, for 
it is well known that the former people settled them- 
selves in what by courtesy we call villages, consisting 
of rudely constructed houses built, or put together 
with poles and sheets of bark in a sufiiciently perma- 
nent manijer to last for a few years. Many of these 
dwellings, being intended to accommodate several 
families, were, according to our ideas, of disproportion- 
ate length when compared with their breadth, measur- 
ing from fifty to three hundred feet in one direction, 
and not more than fifteen or twenty in the other. 

'20 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

A.11 now remaining to indicate the sites of these 
" long houses " are rows of ashes mingled with char- 
coal and fragments of bone, shell and coarse pottery. 
When the floors of such huts became inconveniently 
filthy, rather, perhaps, because of the quantity than 
the quality of the deposit, the village was removed to 
some other eligible situation, the old name being 
retained. These removals have led to considerable 
confusion arising from the accounts of travellers, who 
mention this or that village of a given name, in 
places several miles apart, because the references have 
been made at, and to, different periods. 

It will be seen that this mode of living implies some 
other differences in customs when we compare the 
Huron with the roving Algonkin. The comparatively 
settled life of the Hurons afforded an opportunity to 
perform a few agricultural operations of a simple kind. 
Perhaps it was the desire to grow corn, pumpkins and 
beans that led to the fixity of habitation. However 
this may have been, the women of the village led a 
much easier and, on the whole, a more comfortable life 
than their unsettled Algonkin sisters, and they were 
thus enabled to devote considerable time to the pro- 
duction of pottery, the making and adorning of gar- 
ments, and the forming of numerous tools required to 
carry on these operations, assisted, no doubt, in the 
last-mentioned, by the men qf the tribe. Ceremonial 
observances must also have been modified if they did 
not sometimes actually originate as a result of this 
village habit, and in none of these was this more 
marked than in the modes of burial. 

The Hurons first interred bodies singly, or exposed 
them on a scaffold, or in a tree, until the flesh dropped 

Before the White Man. 21 

from the bones. At intervals of ten or twelve years 
was held the G-reat Feast of the Dead, one of the most 
important and most impressive ceremonies performed 
by this people, and one, too, peculiar to themselves. A 
large pit having been dug, usually on an eminence, the 
collected bones of all who had died since the holding of 
the last "feast " were thrown into the excavation, while 
the shamans, or medicine-men performed their incanta- 
tions, and the assembled people howled and gesti- 
culated to terrify the bad okis, and probably burned 
tobacco to win the favor of the good ones. It is the 
occurrence of such communal graves, bone-pits or 
ossuaries, that leads to the popular conclusion account- 
ing for the presence of so many skeletons as the result 
of battles fought close by. 

The inveterate foes of the Hurons were the Iroquois, 
a people of their own kith and kin. We have no 
means of knowing for how long a bitter warfare was 
carried on between the two branches of this great 
family, but while it lasted it was most remorseless, 
until in 1649 the Hurons, or Wyandots, as they were 
also named, were almost exterminated, the few sur- 
vivors being driven out of the country. It is chiefly 
of these people that we find remains in the form of 
stone, shell and bone relics in this part of Ontario. 

The Iroquois having accomphshed their purpose in 
the destruction of the Hurons, and their attention 
being otherwise engaged until they ultimately became 
involved in the colonial troubles between the British 
and the French, found no time to repel the hordes of 
Ojibwas* who, spreading themselves southwards, soon 

*Also spelled Ojebways, Ojibbewas, Chippewas, and various other ways. 

22 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

occupied all the abandoned territory of the Hurons 
and Neutrals, to the very margins of Erie and Ontario. 

It was with this branch of the enormously wide- 
spread Algonkin family that the British settlers came 
into contact, and with its members that our early leg- 
islators had to deal in acquiring peaceful possession of 
the soil for agricultural purposes. Our governmental 
transactions with the aborigines have always been 
characterized by fairness, if not generosity, but it is 
doubtful whether those who procured cessions and 
surrenders from the Mississaugas (by which name our 
Ojibwas were known) would have treated them so 
liberally had it been apparent that these Indians them- 
selves were, comparatively, new-comers, whose oc- 
cupancy did not extend further back than from fifty 
to a hundred years. 

That few relics of the kind mentioned belong to this 
people will appear evident when it is borne in mind 
that, during the whole time the Mississaugas have 
had a foothold here, communication with the whites 
enabled them to procure necessary articles of a 
superior kind to those of their own production. 

The area now embraced by Scarboro township was 
undoubtedly a desirable one for the Indian. The 
lake- shore cliffs formed an admirable defence against 
attack from the south, so that enemies from that 
quarter must needs have approached the villages by a 
circuitous route ; there could not be better soil for 
their extremely simple method of cultivation ; exten- 
sive forests of magnificent pine, with here and there 
clumps and ranges of hard-wood trees in great 
variety, afforded ideal places of domicile ; small fruits 
were plentiful, and numerous streams supplied fish of 

Before the White Man. 23 

different kinds in abundance, while game, we may 
presume, was not difficult to procure. 

Greneral evidences of Indian occupancy have been 
observed in many parts of this township, but most of 
the traces serving to point out village sites, potteries, 
or corn patches, have long since been cultivated be- 
yond recognition. Among the localities showing proof 
of aboriginal residence are lot 25, lot 30 (north half), 
and lot 32 (south half), on the 2nd concession, where 
relics have been picked up ; while on lot 25, concession 
1, a number of graves have been found. 

Large ash beds, half an acre in extent, may yet be 
seen on the farm of Mr. Martin Willis, lot 13, con- 
cession 2. 

Indian relics have been found on lot 25, the north 
half of lot 30, and the south half of lot 32, all on the 
3rd concession. 

Eelios of various kinds have been found on lot 31, 
concession 4, where there seems to have been a camp- 
ing ground. A specimen bearing a highly polished 
surface was found here. No ossuaries, or single 
graves, have been discovered in this neighborhood. 

On lot 25, concession 4, and lot 23, concession 3, 
old camping grounds have been recognized. Another 
camping ground was seen on lot 22, concession 5. 

A Mississauga camp, consisting of bark lodges 
affording shelter to forty persons, is reported to have 
existed on lot 29, concession 3, as recently as 1835. 
In connection with this encampment, perhaps the last 
of its kind in these parts, Mr. J. L. Paterson relates that 
his father saw one of the Indians seize a red-hot brand 
from the fire, and apply it to stanch the bleeding of 
one of his wrists, from which the hand had just been 


History of the Township of Scarboro. 

cut off in an encounter with another member of the 

At the place known as Bead Hill, specimens con- 
nected with the Mississaugas have been unearthed, 
consisting of "Queen Anne " gun-barrels with copper 
sights, hunting knives, copper kettles, and other 
articles of European manufacture. Along the hill 
formerly known as the Hog's Back, an Indian trail 
runs toward the west. 

The Eouge yields many evidences that its banks 
were, of old time, frequented by the red man, Algonkin 
as well as Huron and Iroquois. Perhaps the earliest 
printed reference to this fact is to be found in a small 
volume by William Brown, printed in Leeds, England, 
in 1849. Some of the men employed in his saw-mill 
discovered a quantity of human bones on the bank of 
the stream, and from time to time stone and bone 
relics have been found at intervals along both banks 
of the river. 

Foundation and Settlement. 25 


' ' We cannot overstate our debts to the past, but the moment has the 
supreme claim. The past is for us, but the sole terms on which it can 
become ours, are its subordination to the present." — Emerson. 

BEFOEE 1790 this part of the Province was 
known to trappers and Indian traders only, 
and but for the selection of Toronto by Grovernor 
Simcoe as his new capital, it might have remained 
unoccupied by the whites for another quarter of a 
century or even more. 

Having determined upon calling the seat of govern- 
ment York, in honor of the Duke of that title, it was 
natural enough that, influenced as he was, he should 
adopt other names connected with the English original, 
and we accordingly have Whitby, Darlington, Picker- 
ing, Markham and Scarboro. In like manner the 
French St. John became the Humber, the stream to 
the east he called the Don, and the Eouge he dubbed 
the Nen.* 

* In Chewitt's map of 1813, but probably as a misprint, this river is marked 
the New. The graceful writer who treats of this neighborhood in the second 
volume of "Picturesque Canada," speaks of "the well- wooded Heights of 
Scarboro, which early French explorers called Les Grandes Scores. This 
the Loyalists Englished into * The High Lands,' so that the stream flowing 
through the Heights is still called ' Highland Creek.' A little to the 
west of the Seneca village [Ganeraskd, now Port Hope] was a stream that 

26 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

When the townships along the lake front were laid 
out by Surveyor Augustus Jones, in 1791, it is said 
that Pickering, Scarboro and York were respectively 
named Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dublin. The people 
of this township may congratulate themselves in 
having now a more appropriate name in Scarboro,* 

gave kindly shelter to distressed canoes ; and so by Indians of the next 
century and of a different race, it was named Katabokokonk, or the ' River 
of Easy Entrance.' In making its way to the lake, it pierced a hill of red 
tenacious clay, which sufficiently colored its waters to justify the old 
French name, Biviire Rouge. In his attempt to reproduce in Upper 
Canada the east coast of England, Simcoe re-christened this stream the 
■ Nen, just as he had converted St. John into the Humber, and La Grande 
Rivifere into the Ouse. But like the Grand River, the Rouge fortunately 
survived the palimpsest maps of Governor Siracoe. It is still the Rouge, 
and the name is interesting as the sole trace now remaining on this north- 
Tvest shore, of the old Sulpician Mission and of Louis the Fourteenth's 

* Scarborough, Isaac Taylor tells us in his "Words and Places," is a 
word of Norse origin, Scar meaning a face or cliGf, from skera, to shear or 
■cut asunder. In a foot-note he refers to the cognate words in Gaelic and 
Erse, sgeir, a cliiBF, and in Anglo-Saxon, sciran, to divide. "Hence,'' he 
says, "the shire, a division of the kingdom, the shore, which divides land 
from sea, the skewer, the ploughs/iare and the shears, instruments for divid- 
ing, and a share, a divided part. A shower consists of divided drops of 
water. To score is to make notches on a stick, and the numeral, a score, 
denotes the number of notches such a stick would contain. A scar is the 
mark where the flesh has been divided. A shard is a bit of broken pottery. 
Shear, sha/rp, and sTcarp denote that something has been cut off. Sewer, 
scare and scour are from the same root." 

Borough is connected with heorgan, an Anglo-Saxon word meanino- to 
cover, to hide or to protect, and probably also with the German hurg, a 
town. Other forms of borough are burgh and brugh, all originally pro- 
nounced with a final guttural, which, passing into hard "g" in English, has at 
last become silent, unless we regard the short final " o " in Scarboro as all 

"that is left of it. 

At a meeting of the General Committee to collect information for the 
history of Scarboro, held in St. Andrew's Church Sunday School, Bendale, 

.in January, 1896, it was decided that in the preparation of this book, the 

Jiame of the township should be spelled Scarboro. 

Foundation and Settlement. 27 

although it is to be deplored that the custom of 
importing old world place-names to America has been 
so persistently followed, and too often with an entire 
disregard to thie " eternal fitness of things." 

Jones surveyed only a portion of Scarboro bordering 
on the lake, and for some reason unknown, made the 
concessions to run east and west instead of north and 
south, as is usually the case. He seems to have been 
determined also that the township should not lack 
highways, for the side lines are placed at intervals of 
half a mile, and along each of these a road is opened. 

On account of the line followed by the lake shore, 
extending in a south-westerly direction, the township 
is considerably longer on the west than on the east, 
and concessions A, B and C do not extend all the way 
across the township. Concession A is only a small 
triangular portion. North of concession D, the others 
are numbered from one to five and as they are the 
result of a different survey, the side roads are not in 
line with those to the south. 

Shortly after the preliminary survey was completed, 
some grants of land were made in recognition of 
military services during the American war, and to 
United Empire Loyalists, but the township does not 
appear to have suffered much from the locking-up of 
extensive tracts held by non-residents, unless near the 
front, along the leading roads. Between 1820 and 1830 
The Canada Company secured a few hundred acres, 
a grant of 384 acres was made by the Legislature for 
the support of grammar schools,* and King's College 

* From the "Final Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the 
affairs of King's University and Upper Canada College,'' by Dr. Joseph 
Workman, in 1852, we learn that so recently as 1850, of this land there 
remained 120 acres unsold. 

28 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

came in for consideralily over 2,000 acres. (See 
Appendix A.) 

In March, 1796, David Thomson and his wife found 
their way hither, apparently having followed the 
Indian trail which was subsequently opened as a 
highway and known as the Danforth Eoad. 

Particular reference to the Thomsons and other 
pioneer famihes will be found in the following chapter. 

It is worthy of note that Scarboro does not appear 
in any of the cessions made by the Indians. What is 
called " The Toronto Purchase," made in 1787*, did 
not even extend eastwards as far as the town line 
between York and Scarboro townships. 

Correspondence with Dr. Douglas Brymner, the 
accomplished Dominion Archivist, and Mr. Duncan C. 
Scott, Secretary of Indian Affairs, has elicited that 
neither in the Department of Archives nor in the 
Indian Department is this territory mentioned. Dr. 
Brymner, after making a thorough search without 
being able to meet with anything bearing on the point, 
referred the writer to Mr. Scott, who replied to the 
effect that this matter had frequently been under the 
consideration of the Indian Department, and that while 
there is what may be called a tradition in the office 
confirming the belief that a cession has been made, 
there are no documents so testifying. 

It is probable that some verbal or otherwise informal 
transfer of this, and a wide strip extending eastwards 
along Ontario and the St. Lawrence, was ceded to the 
British by the Iroquois, who claimed it as a hunting 
ground even after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. 

* "Surrendered by the Mississaugas on the lat Aug., 1805, for 10s. & 
divers good & valuable considerations given on the 23rd Sept., 1787." 


1. Mrs. W. PatPrson. 2. Mi-a. A. D. Thomson. 3. Th. Brown. 

4. C. Lamaroux. 5. John Martin. 6. .J. A. Thomson. 7. Chris. Thomson. 

8. B. Hamilton. 9. Mrs. J. Elliot. 10. S. Thomson. 11. A. Johnston. 

12. Mrs. A. Bell. 13 Mrs. Sisley. 14. C. C. Bowen. 

15, F. Thompson. 16. A. Forfar. 17. F. Armstrong. IS. A. Paterson. 

19. S. Kennedy. 20. H. Hogarth. 21. C. Pilkty. 

22. Mrs. E. Secor. 23. John Tingle. 

The Pioneers. 29 


" With aching hands and bleeding feet 
We dig and heap, lay stone on stone ; 
We bear the burden and the heat 

Of the long day, and wish 'twere done. 
Not till the hours of light return 
All we have built do we discern." 

— Matthew Arnold. 

HISTORY that is to some extent within our 
reach, incidents that are within the memory 
of the very aged, tales told us by those only lately 
gone from among us, have a special interest, a per- 
sonal significance. As we trace the sequence of 
events, look down the vista of the vanished years, 
and revive the memories of men and women who 
have lived and died doing their duty in preparing 
the way for us, we make their lives our own. We 
learn how by perseverance, loyalty and love they laid 
a firm foundation for the building up of a vigorous 
national life. 

The more we study the past the better we shall 
appreciate the present, and realize the importance of 
our influence upon the well-being of the future. 

Through hardships patiently endured, and difficul- 
ties boldly met and overcome, our fathers laid the 
foundations of our present prosperity, and a just pride 
in the integrity of the Empire which their loyalty 
preserved, should incite us to weld its several parts 

30 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

more closely to each other, and thus m our turn leave 
that which makes for a great peace-binding, war-con- 
trolling, national heritage to those who follow us. 

A hundred years ago our fathers felled the first tree 
and made the first clearing wherein to plant a home 
on the forest-crowned heights, and in the picturesque 
valleys of our township. 

To-day, in the crowning year of the century, we 
have well-tilled farms, handsome residences, educa- 
tional advantages, religious liberty, every necessary 
and comfort of civilized life. The advance of science 
has provided an ample field for the exercise of talents 
given us, and made opportunities of which we may 
avail ourselves to earn an honest living, and by indi- 
vidual exertion and ability rise to wealth and position. 

Although there are other names in the township 
preceding his in the records of land grants, David 
Thomson was the first actual settler within its boun- 

A stone-mason by trade, and possessed of the solid, 
practical education common to all Scotchmen, David 
Thomson came to Canada in 1795. 

Born in the parish of Westerkirk, Dumfriesshire, in 
1760, he, and his wife Mary Glendinning, brought 
four children (James, Andrew, Bella and Eichard) 
with them to the New World, Eichard being only 
eighteen months old. A Freemason, a Presbyterian, 
and a Conservative in politics, David Thomson came, 
as did all of his countrymen, imbued with that patriot- 
ism and love of free institutions which have ever been 
characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Coming by way of Quebec, he, as many other 
settlers at that date appear to have done, went on to 
Niagara, which place had until then been the seat of 

The Pioneers. 31 

Grovernment. He arrived just at the time this was 
being removed to York, and was at once employed as 
head mason in the erection of the new government 

Some of the records speak of his working at the 
fort, others on the parliament buildings. It is pro- 
bable he was employed on both. 

The residential part of York was that portion of 
the city of Toronto lying nearest the Don Eiver. The 
marshy shores of the bay, hemmed in as it then was, 
by the peninsula of sand which is now our Island, and 
by the low, often submerged lands, fostered malaria and 
generated a low fever and ague from which many suf- 
fered greatly. Mrs. Thomson's health was so affected 
thus, that they had been only a few months in York 
when her husband saw that he must look for a healthier 
locality in which to settle. The township of Scarboro 
had recently been surveyed and thrown open to set- 
tlers, and David Thomson turned his prospecting steps 
in this direction. Following the road which was 
then little more than an Indian trail through the 
woods, he crossed the intervening sand-plains until he 
struck the better soil in the valley of Highland Creek. 
Here he found the necessary conditions for success in 
a new settlement — rich soil, land well drained, and 
unlimited water power. There was also the advan- 
tage of an abundance of valuable pine. 

Selecting a spot about two and a half miles from 
the lake shore, as the crow flies, and adjacent tO' 
a clear, running spring, the first white settler in the 
township struck the first blow towards establishing 
his home there. The spring had evidently been used 
and kept open by the Indians who in days gone by 
had made this spot their resting-place. 

32 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

David Thomson was not alone. He had evidently 
brought others with him, possibly James Elliot, who 
is mentioned as the owner of the ox-team and sled by 
which the family and their household goods were con- 
veyed to their new home shortly afterwards. During 
the first day the men not only chopped the trees, but 
with them constructed the walls of the small log- 
house. The logs were left in their natural state, 
rough and unhewn, and after cutting out the aper- 
tures for the door and windows the men made a fii'e 
inside, ate their supper, and set a watch to keep off 
the wolves while the others slept after the hardest 
day's toil they had ever performed. 

What a picture for the painter ! The rough walls, 
the drowsy watchman, the blazing fire casting its 
bright light on the recumbent, yet half-alert figures 
of the tired men inside, and, outside on the dense 
forest, ever and anon revealing the sneaking forms 
of the hungry wolves, that would fain have questioned 
the right of the pioneers to invade their domain. 

The terrors of that night were never forgotten, and it 
was not until one of the great oxen, by whose aid they 
had hauled the logs, lay down across the half-barri- 
caded doorway and thus interposed a barrier between 
them and the wolves, that the men slept soundly at last. 

A few days, however, enabled them to make all 
ready to go back to York and bring Mrs. Thomson 
and the children. The path was carefully selected, 
the men breaking the twigs of the trees along the 
route through the woods, and "blazing" the way to 
guide their return. 

They were accompanied by John Thomson (after- 
wards known as " Thomson of the Bay," probably to 

The Pioneers. 33 

distinguish him from another of the same name), 
and James Elliot. 

The comparison between the life in Scotland and 
the strangeness of the experiences in the woods of 
Canada, must have made a profound impression on 
Mrs. Thomson's mind. The "• Mother of Scarboro," 
as she is invariably called, was no doubt possessed of 
indomitable courage, as well as a strong and abiding 
trust in the protecting arm of the Almighty. She 
must have had a firm nerve and boundless love for 
husband and children to carry her through the first 
seven months of her life in Scarboro. She was often 
alone from week's end to week's end with her children 
in the forest log-house, while her husband worked for 
the means of living at his trade in the town, returning 
with the week's provision on his back on each recur- 
ring Saturday night. 

What must have been the joy of the greeting with 
which the weary bread-winner was met ! How long- 
ingly the wife must have watched for the figure 
coming into the little clearing beyond which she and 
her little ones dare not venture ! How precious must 
the Sabbath days have been, and with what anxious 
thoughts did the brave woman bid her husband good- 
bye on the Monday morning ! 

She used to say, " Often in those early days the 
cottage was surrounded by wolves, some on the roof, 
others gnawing and scratching at the door." 

One day Mrs. Thomson heard a commotion among 
the domestic animals in the enclosure ; she ran out, 
and seeing a bear about to carry ofi a pig, she struck 
him with an axe and made him drop his prize. The 
bear made off to the woods, and one of the men fol- 
lowed, but failed to kill him. 

34 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

During these first seven months of their life in 
the township, Mrs. Thomson had not seen another of 
her own sex, until one day an Indian woman came 
into the cottage. The face was strange, the language 
spoken unintelligible, but Mrs. Thomson welcomed 
her gladly. Albeit, of an alien race and color, they 
were women, and they understood one another by the 
freemasonry of sympathy divinely implanted in the 
breast of woman. 

Two years after their arrival in the New World a 
daughter (Janet) was born to the Thomsons, the first 
white child born in the township. 

It would be difficult to give a detailed account of 
all the privations and daily difficulties of this pioneer 
life in the woods^ — the mother alone with her children 
while the husband worked either at York, or in clearing 
the land about the cottage : the necessity of adapting 
their wants to the means of supplying them ; and the 
terrible anxiety when any of their number fell ill. 

One of these privations, which would appear to us 
now as of minor importance, was the difficulty of 
obtaining any variety of diet. Cornmeal and milk for 
breakfast, milk and cornmeal for dinner, and the same 
for supper, day after day, became not only mono- 
tonous but nauseating. As the spring opened it 
occurred to Mrs. Thomson that by noticing what the 
cow fed upon she might find some plant that would 
take the place of the garden greens of her old home. 
Pursuing this idea, she followed the cow into the 
woods, and thus discovered the leek. At first it was 
so great a relish that they used it frequently, but soon 
wearied of it. A dose of warm milk in which it had 
been boiled, administered to Mr. Thomson while ill of 

The Pioneers. 35 

an ague he had contracted at York, so disgusted him, 
that the leek was ever after banished from his table. 

The stream supplied them with fish, some of which 
they salted for winter use. Doubt has been expressed 
as to the variety of fish caught, some affirming it to 
have been salmon, others that it was salmon-trout. It 
was undoubtedly salmon, which was then common to 
all our large lakes. 

There are several fish stories extant. The follow- 
ing is vouched for by several persons still living in 
the township : 

— Andrew Thomson (who came with his brother David 
to Canada and settled on the adjoining lot in Scar- 
boro) and another man, were fishing in that part of 
Highland Creek which flows through Springfield Farm ; 
the former hooked and landed a fish so large that when 
suspended from a pole run through its gills and rest- 
ing on the shoulders of the two men, its tail touched 
the ground. The men were about five feet nine 
inches in height. This fish was probably a sturgeon. 

David Thomson had overcome the first difficulties 
of settlement in the forest when he was joined by his 
two brothers, Andrew and Archibald. 

Andrew was born in 1770, and was twice married 
before he left Scotland. His second wife, Jane Hen- 
derson, and four children came with him to Canada — 
John, his eldest son by the first wife, and Margaret, 
Andrew and William, the second family. 

Archibald was also born and married in Scotland, 
and brought a family of ten to settle near his brothers.* 

♦According to other accounts he came to America unmarried, some 
years before his brother David. After residing for a few years in the 
States, he reached the city of Quebec as a U.E.L. Here he was married, 
and subsequently removed to Detroit, which place he left for Newark on 
the arrival there of his brother David. 

36 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

With such large famihes the Thomsons soon became 
so numerous in the township that it was necessary to 
designate them by the names of their farms, after a 
common custom followed in Scotland. Others were 
distinguished by local sobriquets earned by some 
peculiarity or some incident in which they had taken 
part. Hence we find "Buffalo Dave," " Stone-house 
Archie," "Archie's Arch," " Beardy Archie," " Squaw 
Village John," "Grandmother's Dave," " Eussian 
Dave," "Springfield Jimmie," "Squire's John," "Fid- 
dler Dick," and so on. 

David Thomson took out the patent for his land, 
lot 24, concession 1, two hundred acres, on May 
17th, 1802; Andrew, the patent for lot 23, conces- 
sion 1, on the same date.. 

Among the records of the life of this Thomson 
family, during the early days of their life in Canada, 
is a curious account-book, in which details of work 
done for Andrew and Archibald Thomson are entered. 
A recapitulation of a few of these entries may not be 
uninteresting here : 

"In 1796, wrought at Mr. Dickson's house for 
Andrew Thomson — days. Eec'd of him 2 dollars. 

" 1797.— Wrought to Arch'd Thomson at the jail 
14 days— March 14." 

Down the column of consecutive days other names 
appear. At May 5th it reads : 

" To And'w Heron, 1 day. 6th. — At the grave- 
yard, 1 day. 17th.— To Mr. Wilson, 1 day. 

" June 23rd.— To Mr. Pilkington, 1 day. 

"To plaistering the two government rooms, And'w 
Thomson, John Thomson, and D'd Thomson, 14 days 

The Pioneers. 37 

" July 26th. — Begun to wall the government brick 
houses — D'd Thomson." 

The name of James Elliot also appears frequently in 
the pages which follow, the walls of the government 
buildings evidently taking until the end of August to 
build, and other work occupying the men until the 
7th of October. 

The account for the quantity of bricks used is also 
given on another page : 

" 53,500, at 17s. 6d. per thousand, amounting to 
£46 16s. 2d. ; four 84-foot arches, at Is. per foot, 
£4 4s. Total, £51 2d." 

Other names prominent in Toronto and the Gov- 
ernment are also mentioned, including those of Capt. 
McGill and Mr. Cameron. 

An entry on one of the yellow leaves of the little 
book would lead us to infer that Mrs. Thomson kept 
her husband's accounts, as in the same handwriting 
there is : 

"April 8th, 1798. — To sewing one shirt, 6. To 
hemming a handkerchief, 1." 

There is no note to indicate whether she charged 
Samuel Heron shillings or pence for the work done. 
On the same page is an entry of 7f lbs. of beef at lid. 
per lb., bought of Samuel Heron. 

In course of time, as the land became cleared, 
there were many open glades in which comfortable 
log-houses and some frame farm buildings dotted the 
landscape. Neighbors were nearer, the population 
was increasing, and times were apparently growing 
better. The settlers could now look forward hope- 
fully to success. Eoads were being made, and traffic 
between the principal settlements and the markets 
was thus rendered less infrequent. 

38 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

When war was declared by the United States 
against Grreat Britain in 1812, David Thomson was 
given a commission in the 3rd York Eegiment of 
Militia, and no doubt fulfilled the attendant obligation 
of raising the company he was to command from 
the settlers in the township, so many of whom bore 
his own name. (Further particulars of his military 
career will be found in the chapter on Militia.) 

After the cessation of hostilities, the settlement of 
the country was more rapid, a number coming over 
from the United States, and others from Great Britain 
and Ireland. Shortly after the close of the war, 
David Thomson built a tavern, or stopping place, on 
the opposite bank of the stream from that on which 
the first cottage stood, and on the old Markham Eoad, 
in order to accommodate the public travelling to and 
from the north by that route. The site is now occu- 
pied by the fine residence of his grandson, Amos 
Thomson. The vacated cottage was rented by Mrs. 
Betsy Stafford, a widow, who kept the first store in 
the township. 

The tavern was a frame house built by one of David 
Thomson's sons. The roof was covered by hand-made 
clap-boards. In this house David Thomson and his 
wife lived the remainder of their days. Hospitable, 
kind and full of sympathy for those in trouble, they 
were honored and respected by all who knew them. 

About a year before he died David Thomson under- 
went a surgical operation, having his leg amputated 
for some disease of the knee. When Drs. Graham 
and Hamilton were ready to operate, the old man, 
with a nerve wonderful in one of his age, mounted the 
table without assistance, laid himself down, and en- 
dured the amputation without flinching. He died in 

The Pioneers. 39 

1834, and was buried in the old church-yard of St. 

Andrew's. His wife survived him some years, dying 

on November 8th, 1847. 

A large tombstone marks the spot where they lie. 

It bears the following inscription which tells its own 

story : 


/iBemorg of 

fiDari? ^bomson, 

Xlbe ^otbcr of Scarboro, 

TRUbo DtcD tbe 8tb November, 1847. 

aged 80 gears. 

Here her remains repose side by side 
with those of her husband 


Whose gravestone tells the Land 

of their Nativity and when they 

settled in Scarboro, which was 

then a Wilderness. On the opposite 

bank of the passing Eivulet, a 

little above this Burial-ground, 

they built their lonely cottage, 

and there they contended successfully 

against the hardships of a 

forest life ; and there she passed 

the first seven months after their 

settlement without seeing a woman, 

and the first was an INDIAN. 

As her husband, she lived and 

died respected, leaving behind her 

above 100 Descendants. 

As time ruvs on, so families pass away ; 
Te living men improve the present day ; 
seek that home that lies beyond the grave, 
Employ all means th' immortal soul to set ye. 

40 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The experiences of other early settlers in the town- 
ship were more or less similar to that of the Thomsons 
— they all had to overcome the difficulties of clearing 
the forest, to live in the rudely-built log-houses and 
to endure the like privations. In writing the history 
of one we have that of all. Among the names most 
prominent in the annals of the township in the early 
days of the century are Annis, Cornell, Elliot, Pherrill, 
Devenish, Kenned}^, Smith, Post, Palmer, Paterson, 
Secor, Chester and Adams. 

The founder of the Annis family on this continent 
came to Massachusetts, U.S., in 1670. His descend- 
ant, Charles Annis, attracted by the bounty offered 
by Lieut. -Grovernor Simcoe, came over into Canada 
in 1793. He first settled in Whitby township, but 
removed to Scarboro, to lots 16, concessions C and D, 
which he purchased in 1808. 

He had not borne arms in the War of Independ- 
ence, and he took the oath of allegiance to the British 
Crown before Robert Baldwin, J. P., on January 15th, 
1801. His son Levi, with William Cornell and the 
early settlers in the township, cut out the timber 
along the route through the forest for the Kingston 
Road in 1800, and Charles Annis with his second son 
was employed by G-overnment, in 1812, to carry the 
mail between York and a post half a mile east of the 
present town of Oshawa. 

Roger Coonet (Vankoughnet ?) and John Buck 
had come from the United States with Charles Annis, 
one of whose sons married a daughter of Coonet, by 
whom he had a large family, who all married and 
settled in the township. 

Levi Annis's house appears to have been used as 

The Pioneers. 41 

quarters for contingents of British soldiers when on 
their way up from Kingston to York and Niagara. 
Fears of invasion and raids made by parties from the 
United States were a source of anxiety to the settlers. 
Many stories are told, although there are not sufficient 
data extant to render them authentic history. One 
in connection with Levi Annis's house is to the effect 
that upon an alarm being given of the approach of 
the enemy, the soldiers quartered there buried their 
money in Gates's Grully, close by. As there is no 
record of the money having been dug up again, belief 
in the story has led to many a search being made for 
it by the romance-loving lads in the township. 

A daughter of William Pawcett, who came to Can- 
ada from Cumberland, in 1825, and bought lot 16, 
concession 1, married into the Annis family. 

Though not as numerous as the Thomsons, the 
Annises married and intermarried with the families 
of the other early settlers, and formed an important 
constituency in the township. 

James Elliot, who accompanied David Thomson in 
his original journey, was also the founder of a large 
family. He came to Canada in the same year, and 
was employed in the government works at York. He 
took up lot 21, concession D, and married Janet Thom- 
son, niece of David, in 1802, their marriage being the 
first celebrated in the township. 

He afterwards moved to lot 24, concession 3, also 
taking up lot 25, which, being on Clergy Eeserve land, 
was available for pre-emption only. Three of his sons 
who survived him received one hundred acres each. 
His daughters married, and moved with their husbands 

42 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

into other townships. Some of his descendants still 
reside in Scarboro. 

Stephen Pherrill is another name around which early 
reminiscences group themselves. Born in 1782, near 
the Eiver St. John, at a point where it divides the 
State of Maine and New Brunswick, he married 
Elizabeth Kussell and came to Scarboro in 1803. The 
route by which they travelled was a long one. He 
rowed his wife and child, with the small amount of 
baggage they possessed, in a small boat up the St. 
Lawrence and up the lake to York. There he was 
employed in Scadding's mill, on the Don Kiver. He 
took up lot 24, concession B, in 1805 or 1806. 

When war broke out in 1812, Stephen placed his 
team at the service of the Government, and was em- 
ployed to convey soldiers, stores and ammunition from 
Kingston to Niagara. He also carried the dispatches 
from York to Whitby, having to swim his horse across 
the Eiver Eouge. His wife shared the task, for when 
he reached his farm upon the return journey, weary 
and wet, his horse jaded and tired, she mounted the 
other horse and carried the dispatches on to York, 
while her husband took needed rest. 

There is a story told of this brave woman defying 
a party of rude Americans who came into her house, 
and, with wanton violence, destroyed all they could 
not carry away. She was forced to desist from active 
protestations against the breaking of her crockery by 
threats of being killed if she were not quiet. Dishes 
were valuable things in those days — all such neces- 
saries having to be brought from Montreal in bateaux 
(large fiat boats), forced up the rapids by men with 
strong poles, and occupying many days on the journey. 

The Pioneers. 43 

Her son Adna was born in Scarboro in 1816. He 
died in 1892, and his son Tilmoth now lives on the 

William Devenish was another of the earliest settlers. 
Born in London, he came to Canada via New York, 
and crossed the Niagara Eiver in 1792. He was a 
carpenter, and probably was also employed on the 
new government buildings at York. He settled in 
Scarboro, lot 35, concession C, in 1804, and built the 
first frame barn in the township in 1807. It was 
pulled down by D. Hough, of Medonte, in 1846. The 
scantling used for braces and girths were hewn from 
rough timber with the axe ; the boards were split from 
pine logs ; the material used for doors was sawn by 
hand ; the nails were made by a blacksmith. It is to 
be regretted that this building was not preserved as a 
monument to the industry and perseverance of the 
early settlers. It is supposed that the old school- 
house in this section was built about the same time. 

The loneliness of life in the woods is graphically 
illustrated by a gift made by "William Devenish to an 
incoming settler named Foglie, in 1810, whom he 
induced to accept a life-lease of one hundred acres of 
heavily wooded land, part of his own lot, for the nominal 
rental of one shilling a year, in order that he might 
secure him as a neighbor. 

Foglie settled on it and married. He does not 
appear to have done much clearing, except to dispose 
of the timber. The Lewis Lumber Company, having 
built a large steam mill at Norway in 1822, bought a 
quantity of the valuable pine from Foglie. He died in 
1825, but his landlord allowed his widow to remain on 
the lot. Mrs. Foglie was found murdered in her 

44 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

house about twelve years after the death of her hus- 
band. It was generally supposed that the reports of 
her wealth and the hope of gettmg possession of it 
had excited the cupidity of some of the men employed 
at the mill. The truth of this has never been ascer- 
tained. The murderer failed to find her money, as it 
was discovered later sewed up inside a mattress. The 
land then reverted to the original owner. 

William Devenish was married to Jane Webster by 
Parson Addison, a well-known divine of that date, 
1799. Her family came to Scarboro and lived on the 
Devenish farm. His brother-in-law and William 
Purdy built a carding mill on the little Don, just 
on the town line between York and Scarboro. This 
mill was run by the latter in 1820, but the date of its 
erection is uncertain. 

William Devenish was the assessor and tax collector 
and commissioner for the township for twenty-seven 
years before the municipal laws came. into force, and 
was a J. P. until his death, on July 29th, 1856. He 
had eleven children, the only one of whom surviving is 
Ann, married to J. P. Wheler. 

William Cornell also belongs to the group of the 
earliest settlers, coming in next to Thomson. De- 
scended from a Cornell, or Cornwell, who came to 
America and settled in Ehode Island in 1636, William 
Cornell was born on October 29th, 1766. He came 
to Scarboro and took up lots 17 and 18, concession C, 
on the lake front, at the end of last century. He 
brought his wife and family across the lake in a boat, 
which they anchored out from the shore and lived in 
until the house was built. He plied a lucrative trade 
across the lake, carrying grain, potatoes, etc., to 

The Pioneers. 45 

Oswego. He lost both her and her cargo of wheat 
in 1812. She was probably seized in Oswego as a 
legitimate war-prize. Having to carry his corn and 
wheat to Port Hope to be ground, he made an early 
effort to supply the need of the settlers. He built 
the first grist and saw-mill in the township, conveying 
the mill-stones for the former from Kingston on his 
sled, and paying for them with a span of young colts. 
He set out the first orchard in the township about the 
year 1802. 

William Cornell was twi-ce married. His first wife 
died in 1808. His second was Tiny, the widow of 
Parshall Terry. By her he had two sons and four 
daughters. She died in 1834. 

Cornell belonged to the Society of Friends. He 
lived to the great age of 93 years and 6 months. 

William Knowles, the ancestor of the present E. 
Knowles, also had an eventful journey to the town- 
ship. Born in England, he came here from New 
Jersey with his wife and seven children in 1803. 
Coming by boat round the head of Lake Ontario, they 
were obliged to put in at the Forty Mile Creek, the 
site of the present town of Grimsby, where the eighth 
child, and father of the present E. Knowles, was born. 

No details are extant as to whether the poor woman 
had other care than her husband could give her, or 
whether the child was born under the shelter of a roof 
or of a tent. This was probably but one more of the 
many instances recorded of the endurance and bravery 
of the women whose sons have inherited their pluck 
and made Canada what it is to-day 

As soon as Mrs. Knowles was able to travel, they 
came on to Scarboro, probably by road, as the record 

4G History of the Township of Scarboro. 

is that William Knowles bought lot 3, concession 1, 
from Jesse Ketchum, paying for it with a span of 
horses, a set of harness, and waggon. It is reasonable 
to suppose that after the birth of the child it was 
more difficult to continue their journey by water. 
The Forty Mile Creek was also in the direct road 
from Niagara to York, and the exchange of boat for 
horses and waggon would not be a difficult matter to 

He had been led to suppose when he purchased the 
lot that he would find a house ready to receive his 
family. He found only the roofless walls of a log 
shanty, and the first days of his life in Scarboro were 
spent luider the trees. 

Knowles was a blacksmith and built the first 
smithy, making the nails used in building the first 
frame barn in the township. He planted out an 
orchard, naming each tree after the child who dug the 
obstructing stump out of the spot where the tree was 
set. He grew his own flax, and his wife, who was of 
Dutch descent, carded, spun and wove all the blank- 
ets, linen and cloth required for the family. William 
Knowles died in May, 1825 ; his wife survived him till 
January 27th, 1842. Dying intestate, his property went 
to his eldest son Richard, who, however, generously 
divided it equally with his brothers. Daniel subse- 
quently bought out his brothers' shares, and lived on 
the estate until 1861. The stone house on the lot was 
built in 1832, and while being the second erected in 
the township, is believed now to be the oldest stand- 
ing. Daniel kept the first store in the section, and 
was part owner with James Adams of a vessel plying 
between Canadian and United States ports. 

The Pioneers. 47 

In 1836, Daniel Knowles was appointed one of the 
Commissioners for making the present Kingston Eoad. 
In 1850, he was a prominent member of the Scarboro 
and Pickering Wharf Company. This company did 
an excellent business in shipping grain, tan-bark, tim- 
ber and cordwood, until the building of the Grand 
Trunk Kailway diverted the traffic. He was elder of 
a sect known as the " Disciples of Christ." They held 
their meetings in the old school-house on his land. 

His sister Anna was one of the notables of the 
township. She kept house for him. Eising early, she 
performed her own domestic duties, then saddled a 
horse, well known in the section as the " Old Sorrel," 
and rode five miles to Pickering, where her brother 
John lived. After baking, washing or scrubbing for 
him, and setting his bachelor quarters in order, 
she rode home again before evening, following the 
banks of the Eouge, making "Old Sorrel" swim 
across intervening creeks. She seems to have been a 
matter-of-fact woman, probably possessing a sense of 
humor, and was celebrated as one of the best soap- 
makers in the section. When one of her neighbors 
asked "in what moon" she made it, she replied to her 
superstitious querist, that her " soap was made in a 
kettle, not in the moon." 

James Kennedy came from Schenectady, N.Y., in 
1800, and settled on lot 28, concession 5. The names 
of three of his sons are prominent in the militia annals 
of the township. He had five sons and three daugh- 
ters, most of whom married and settled here. His 
grandson Thomas, having sold lot 28, concession 4 
(his father's property), to Mr. Eckardt, succeeded 
him on the old homestead, where he lived till 1847, 

48 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

when he bought lot 26, concession 3. Many of James 
Kennedy's descendants own lots in the township ; 
others are in good positions in different parts of the 

Isaac Chester, born in Northumberland, England, 
about 1785, married Elizabeth Whitfield, in 1808, and 
came to Canada, via New York, in 1819. He remained 
some time in York, where he was employed in building 
the brick house (still standing) on the corner of King 
and Erederick streets, Toronto, afterwards occupied 
by the Canada Company's offices. He moved to 
Scarboro about 1820, taking out a 100-acres' grant on 
lot 26, concession C, and bought the present home- 
stead, lot 25, concession D, from ■ — — Elummerfelt, 
another resident of Scarboro, about 1828. He died at 
the age of eighty-six, his wife at eighty- two. He had 
nine children, and has a number of descendants still 
resident in the township. 

George, his fourth son, who lives on lot 19, conces- 
sion D, keeps a general store. He was lieutenant in 
the Scarboro militia ; postmaster from 1863 to 1858 ; 
member of the council for eight years, filling the 
office of Eeeve for six and of Deputy-Eeeve for two 
years. He is a member of the Church of England and 
a Conservative. He married Elizabeth Einlay, and 
has three sons and two daughters. 

Thomas Adams, or, as he was better known among 
the settlers, "Uncle Tommy Adams," was another of 
the early settlers. He was said to like his sobriquet 
so well that he declined to be addressed by any other 
name. He came to Canada from Vermont, U.S., in 
1808, and settled upon lots 1, concessions D and 1. He 
built a log-house on the bank overlooking the lake,.and 



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The Pioneers. 49 

later on, a brick one. The latter was struck by light- 
ning about the year 1832, when his son William was 
killed. Thomas Adams was a carpenter, and captain 
of an American sailing-vessel during the war of 1812. 
He was driven for refuge into Highland Creek. There, 
fearing his cargo of guns, brass kettles and ammuni- 
tion might be seized, he threw everything overboard, 
and, tradition adds, "the drowned cargo is still sup- 
posed to be lying at the bottom of the creek." 

About 1834, Thomas Adams, in partnership with 
John Allen, built a sailing-vessel at the mouth of 
Highland Creek. They named her the Mary Ann. 
Adams built the first school-house in the section, in 
1836. It is still standing, a cottage of planks, on the 
Kingston Eoad. Many of the first frame houses in 
the neighborhood were also put up by him. Adams 
had six sons and two daughters. One of the sons, 
James, was a sailor and part owner with Daniel 
Knowles of the Highland Chief, a vessel built at the 
Humber Eiver about 1884. This vessel was lost in a 
great storm on the lakes, when all "hands perished. 
The wreck was driven ashore at Presqu' He Point, 
overhauled, and ultimately sold to Thomas Scott. 

Among the earliest names in the township is Ash- 
bridge, a U. E. Loyalist. Around it a peculiar inter- 
est centres. Sarah Ashbridge, a widow, with her 
children, came from Philadelphia in 1790. She 
was given a grant of two hundred acres, lot 27, con- 
cession B. Her story would be interesting ; her loy- 
alty, endurance and perseverance in making the jour- 
ney from Philadelphia to Canada, and at that early 
date taking up land in the wilds of a new township, 
in order to live and bring up her children under the 

60 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

shadow of the Union Jack, should be a narrative of no 
commonplace nature. It is to be regretted that this 
story cannot be gathered and given now to the readers 
of the records of a century in the township. 

Mrs. Ashbridge bequeathed her land to two of her 
grandsons, Andrew Heron and James McClure. Her 
son Jonathan was granted lot 26, concession B. He 
gave it to his son Isaac in 1844. Isaac married Kuth, 
daughter of George Auburn, and his son Jonathan now 
owns the farm. Isaac died in 1894. 

At the time of the terrible massacre of St. Barthol- 
omew, when so many lost their lives for the Protest- 
ant faith, two brothers and a sister left their home and 
property. They made their escape from the shores of 
France in an old scow, and were taken on board a 
British merchant ship bound for New York. Here 
they landed and made a home for themselves and 
their descendants, accumulating a fine property in 
the New World. Part of this estate is the present 
Jerome Park, the finest race-track in America. Upon 
the outbreak of the Eevolutionary War, their loyalty 
to the flag under which their ancestors had been 
rescued made it impossible for them to join the rebels, 
or take any part in the revolutionary movement. 
Isaac Secor, the representative of the Old French 
Huguenot famUy of De S^cor, left his property and 
crossed into Canada. 

He came first to Kingston, and moving west, built 
the first stone mill at Napanee, and it is probably from 
this mill, and the quantity of flour ground in it that 
the place was named by the Indians " Napanee," — 
flour or bread. In or about the year 1817, he under- 
took the contract to improve the Kingston Eoad 

The Pioneers. 51 

through the township of Scarboro, a distance of about 
twelve miles, for the sum of ^1,100. He married and 
left four daughters and two sons, who remained in the 
township. The Secors, father and sons, served in the 
militia (for particulars, see Militia chapter), proving 
their loyalty and devotion to be as great in the 
Scarboro branch of the family as in that settled in the 
Niagara peninsula, which had the fidelity and courage 
of Laura Secord to glorify it. 

Instances of the changes made in names by their 
environment are common throughout the country. 
In the Secors the Scarboro branch had but dropped the 
noble prefix of "de." In Niagara it was also dropped; 
but the pronunciation of the name led to its being 
spelled with a final " d," Secord. 

A greater alteration, however, occurs in that of 
Pierre le Pelletier, which, in Scarboro, is now only 
known and recognized as Peter Pilkey. The celebra- 
tion of the centennial of Scarboro settlement might 
be a favorable date on which to restore the name to its 
original form. 

Pierre le Pelletier de Scarboro was born at Three 
Eivers about 1776. He came to Kingston in 1800, 
and thence to York, in a vessel carrying a cargo of 
potash kettles. There being no wharf at York, the 
kettles were carefully lowered from the deck to the 
water, when, it is said, the men got into them and 
paddled ashore ! 

Thus did Pierre le Pelletier, the ancestor of the 
Pilkeys of to-day, arrive at York. He first located on 
the right bank of the Don, within the limits of the 
town of York, and obtained employment at the New 

52 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

During 1812 he held the post of baker to the 
garrison, and when the capital was attacked by the 
Americans under Chauncey, his stone bread-trough 
was rendered useless by an enemy's cannon-ball. 

It is stated that Le Pelletier took an active part in 
the war of 1812, and that his family still possess a 
medal given him for blowing up the fort at Detroit. 
Port Detroit was not blown up — the fort at York was, 
either by accident or design, probably the latter ; and 
if this French-Canadian was the man detailed to the 
duty, and was thus rewarded for it, a valuable item 
would be added to the history of that memorable day. 

In the same year he was employed in the convey- 
ance of a cannon and an anchor from Kingston to 
Penetanguishene. These were drawn by oxen from 
the Eouge to Holland Landing, by way of the Dan- 
forth and Old Eidge Eoads. Prom Holland Landing 
to the head of Kempenfeldt Bay they were conveyed 
on a raft, thence from the site of the present town of 
Barrie to the Nottawasaga Eiver by land, with the 
intention of completing the distance by that river to 
the G-eorgian Bay, and along its shores to Penetan- 
guishene. But, alas ! the anchor was lost in the river, 
where it remains to the present day.* 

Pierre le Pelletier settled on lot 35, concession 1, 
and his family of nine sons formed a valuable company 
for the development of the township's resources. 

Another Scarboro pioneer with an interesting re- 
cord was Joseph Harrington. His father, mother, 

*This anchor was of enormous weight, and the cost of its transport 
reached the sum of seven hundred pounds. It should be taken up and 
preserved as an historical relic in the County of Simcoe. It would make 
an excellent monument. 

The Pioneers. 5S 

grandmother and one child, U. B. Loyahsts, left 
Cleveland, Ohio, early in the spring of 1804. Driving 
their own horses and bringing several cows with them, 
they crossed the Niagara and came around the head 
of the lake. Owing probably to the rate of travel 
possible for the cattle, the party were longer on the 
road than they had calculated upon. When they 
reached the Humber Eiver near Weston, it was neces- 
sary to make a halt. They succeeded in securing 
an old stable as a lodging, and there Joseph Harring- 
ton was born, on July 17, 1804. As soon as Mrs. 
Harrington was able to travel, they moved on to 
Markham. Young Joseph married Sarah Pickel, of 
Darlington, in 1832, and settled in the township of 
Scarboro, on lot 19, concession 2, seventy-five acres of 
which he bought from Wm. Proudfoot. This part of 
the township was still covered with forest, and the 
Harringtons had many experiences similar to those of 
the earliest settlers. During the first summer they 
lived in a frame house without either door or window, 
and did all their cooking on a camp fire in the open 

Harrington built a mill-dam and mill during the 
first year, and although it was a great labor it was a 
great success, and the time spent in the work proved 
a good investment both for himself and his neighbors. 

James Jones, a Welshman, took up his abode on 
lot 28, concession C, in 1811. He obtained a twenty- 
one years' lease of it from the Clergy Eeserve, paying 
for the first seven years an annual rental of ten shil- 
lings, or three bushels of good wheat ; the second 
seven years the rental was increased to one pound 
(twenty shillings), or six bushels, and the last seven, 

54 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

one pound ten shillings, or nine bushels of good wheat, 
was claimed. He purchased this hundred acres in 
1829, obtaining a deed from King's College. 

Jonathan Gates, who settled on lots 19 and 20, 
concession C, in 1815, is another name familiar to 
early settlers. He was the proprietor of the well- 
known Gates's Tavern, and his name will occur fre- 
quently in what follows. 

The name of Helliwell is now a prominent one in 
the township. In the records of the founder of the 
family in Canada there are several very interesting 

Thomas Helliwell was a cotton spinner in Tough- 
stone, Yorkshire, England. In 1818 he decided to 
try his fortune in the New World, but owing to some 
guild regulation preventing skilled workmen leaving 
England, he was obliged to smuggle himself on board 
a sailing-vessel at Sunderland, and arrived in Quebec 
just after the river was free of ice. He settled first 
at Lundy's Lane, and opened a store for general mer- 
chandise at the junction of Lundy's Lane and the 
Chippewa Eoad, now a central corner in the village of 
Drummondville. His family joined him in August. 
He also rented the building afterwards occupied as a 
museum at Niagara Falls. It was then a distillery, 
and Thomas Helliwell carried on the business in con- 
nection with his general store, exchanging goods for 
grain, which he made into whiskey and sold at a 
York-shilling a gallon.* 

Thomas Helliwell bought lot 7, concession 1, from 
a man at the Falls in 1820, but did not settle on it. 

* A York-shilling was a British sixpenny piece, and was equivalent to 
sevenpence halfpenny currency, or twelve and a half cents. 

The Pioneers. 55 

His son, William Helliwell, came to the township in 
1847. In 1821 he bought the Don Mills, and built a 
brewery there. After his death in 1825 his three elder 
sons carried on the business, until William became of 
age, when he was taken into partnership and remained 
in the firm until he removed to Scarboro in 1847. He 
lived in the rough-cast cottage near the present post- 
office at Highland Creek. He has been twice married, 
and has a number of descendants living in the town- 
ship and in other parts of Canada. 

John Hough was another of the earlier settlers who 
came to Canada, crossing at Queenston in 1794. His 
son W^illiam, born in Albany, N.Y., in 1777, came to 
Scarboro before the close of the century. He settled 
on 200 acres of lots 28, concessions A and B, on what 
is now called the Kennedy Road. His father and the 
rest of the family followed him in 1804, and took up 
the 200 acres of lot 30, concession B, since known as 
Hough's Corners, a name it has borne for over eighty 
years. John built the first saw-mill on the little 
stream running through the east corner of lot 30, con- 
cession C, in 1816. 

We get a quaint little peep of life in the bush from 
the records of the Walton family. John Walton, 
born in Cumberland, England, in 1799, emigrated to 
Canada, with his parents, in 1818. Having worked in 
the lead mines in England, he turned his knowledge 
to account by sinking wells. Many of those in the 
neighborhood of Gooderham & Worts' distillery were 
sunk by John Walton. In 1823 he settled in Scar- 
boro, on lot 35, concession 2, and lot 35, concession 3, 
for which he paid $1 an acre. He afterwards sold the 
north half to Eobert Oliver, and lived on the south 

66 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

half. He married Mary Thomson, third daughter of 
the first settler in Scarboro. 

Mrs. Walton carried her butter and eggs to York 
market, a distance of ten miles, by a footpath through 
the woods. She received fourpence a pound for her 
butter, or one York-shilling for two pounds, and the 
same for her eggs per dozen, taking groceries and other 
necessaries instead of cash. One takes an interest 
in learning that at the end of three years the family 
fortunes had prospered well enough to provide the 
worthy daughter of a brave mother with a mare called 
"Kate," and a side-saddle on which she might ride to 
market. After two years more, the industrious couple 
procured a second steed, and, with ingenious fingers, 
fashioned for the team a set of harness, from strips of 
basswood bark. 

Thomas Paterson, born in Kelso, Scotland, settled 
on lot 28, concession 3. He was a Presbyterian, and 
Thomas Paterson was one of the first elders ordained 
in St. Andrew's Church. His son William had pre- 
ceded him by two years, taking oiit his patent in 1818. 
The land was uncleared, and the family endured all 
the hardships and privations inseparable from life in 
the bush. His grandson, John L., settled on lot 27, 
concession 3, is noted for the pride he has taken in 
the successful working of his farm. Other grandsons 
are James, Thomas and Andrew, all leading farmers 
on the Kennedy Eoad. 

Between the years 1820 and 1830 we find many 
names still prominent in the township. Among them 
was John Perryman Wheler, a Devonshire man, who 
took an active interest in church affairs and was one 
of the most prominent • in all agricultural matters, 
being for thirty years a director in one or other of the 

The Pioneers. 57 

agricultural societies in the township, or in the East 
Riding of York, and a life member of the Agriculture 
and Arts Association of Ontario. He was also a mem- 
ber of the township council, and for eighteen years 
held the office of reeve. Mr. Wheler was an able 
man, being conversant with municipal law, and con- 
sidered an authority on all questions within its scope. 
As president of the first regularly constituted Reform 
Association in the township, he took a lively part in 
its proceedings. He was License Inspector from the 
date of the Crooks Act until his death. 

James lonson is another name belonging to this 
date. He came from Westmoreland, England, and 
settled on lot 29, concession D, in 1827. 

Robert Jackson, born in Yorkshire in 1803, came 
with his wife and four children to Canada. He bought 
lot 17, concession D, from J. Willmot. After living 
twelve years in the log-house, he desired to build a 
brick residence. To do so it was first necessary to 
make the bricks. This he did on the farm, puddling 
the clay by the feet of his oxen. Mr. Jackson actively 
assisted in the building of St. Margaret's Church, and 
served as churchwarden in Christ Church for eleven 
years. He was married twice, his second wife being 
a daughter of Pennock Thompson. He had eighteen 
children, all of whom married and settled in Canada, 
and his descendants would make a regiment 350 strong. 
His son, Thompson Jackson, was director and presi- 
dent of the Scarborc? Agricultural Society for ten years, 
and representative of the township council for three. 

Stephen Washington, the founder of Washington 
Methodist Church, built in 1842, settled on lot 22, 
concession C, in 1824. 


38 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

James Humphrey, bom in the County of Tyrone, 
Ireland, on May 31st, 1797, came to Canada in 1824. 
He purchased the two hundred acres of lot 16, conces- 
sion D, for which he paid five dollars an acre to the 
Clergy Eeserve Fund. He was a member of the 
Church of England, and gave the site on which Christ 
Church stands. He died in 1893, at the advanced 
age of 95 years and 11 months. 

Francis Armstrong, familiarly known in the town- 
ship as "Daddy Armstrong." He is a carpenter and 
wheelwright, and though in his eighty-third year, is 
still active. 

The Eichardson family came from Ireland, in 1823 
and 1824, to lot 14, concession D. Notwithstanding 
the prosperity that has attended this family, its mem- 
bers are now widely scattered, the only representative 
left in the township being John, who represents East 
York in the Local Legislature, and who is a Commis- 
sioner in Queen's Bench. For fourteen years he was 
Reeve, and in 1885 he held the position of County 
Warden. Numerous physicians and ministers, else- 
where mentioned, have done honor to the name both 
in this country and the United States. 

Jordan Post, a settler who has left his own and his 
wife's names upon two of the central business streets 
of Toronto, was born in Connecticut, U.S., in 1767, 
came to Canada, and settled in York about 1790, and 
did business there in after years as a watch and clock 
maker. He married Melinda Woodruff about 1804. 
Having faith in the future of the place, he invested 
largely in real estate, part of it being the block 
where Jordan and Melinda streets retain the old 
names. He moved to Scarboro in 1829, to five hun- 

The Pioneers. 59 

dred acres on Highland Creek, where he built a saw- 
mill, and became one of the pioneer lumbermen of 
the district. He fioated the output down the stream 
to a point known as Cornell's Landing, and shipped 
it in small sailing-vessels to various ports on the 
lake. He built what was known for years as the 
" Old Yellow House." It was burned down in 1885. 
It stood on the site of Mr. Tredway's present house. 
Here he kept a general store until his death in 
1845. He left six children. His sons Jordan and 
Woodruff inherited the property. The latter built a 
second saw-mill about half a mile east of the old 
one, and carried on a successful business for some 
years. He finally sold out to his brother-in-law, 
Stephen Closson, and went to the United States, 
where he entered the Episcopal Methodist ministry, 
and is still living at Clean, N.Y. 

John Bell came to the township in 1820, and 
purchased lot 29, concession C, from Captain John 
McGill. He kept the "Blue Bell" from 1833 until 
his death in 1866. The only clearing between this 
tavern and the Woodbine was a small patch on lot 
32, concession B, on the hill south of the Danforth 
Eoad, known as McCarthy's clearing. 

David Brown was a wheelwright and waggon-maker, 
lot 30, concession 3. He built two stationary thresh- 
ing machines for the late Wm. Hood and his brother 
Thomas Brown, making his horsepower wheels with 
wooden cogs. His name is perpetuated in the town- 
ship in "Brown's Corners," where the present owner 
of the lot is post-master. 

William Oliver, lot 10, concession 3, was born 
in Norfolk. He was employed by Richard Beatty, 
contractor, for improving and straightening the King- 

60 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

ston Eoad, in 1836, and was familiarly known as 
"Billy-go-the-Eoad," probably from having tramped 
some distance in search of work. He leased a point 
of land adjoining Highland Creek, which is still known 
as "Billy's Point." He was the first settler. on lot 2, 
concession D. 

Marshall Macklem, lot 24, concession 4, is spoken 
of as the pioneer planter of trees along the roadsides, 
setting an example which many have followed, to the 
great advantage of the township. 

George Morgan took up lot 32, concession 3. His 
son John, who, with his wife, survive, are aged 
respectively, eighty-two and eighty years. He owned 
the first mowing machine used in the township (about 

Wm. Nash, lot 20, concession 4, was for many years 
a well-known county constable. 

William Clark, born in the parish of Beith, Ren- 
frewshire, Scotland, settled on lot 30, concession 4, 
which he purchased from John Kennedy in 1838. He 
was a member of the Home District Council in 1842. 
He left seven sons and two daughters. William, jun., 
succeeded him, and had five sons and two daughters. 
The second son, John C. Clark, J. P., now occupies the 
homestead. Hugh, fifth son of William, sen., settled 
on lot 28, concession 4. 

Samuel Horsey, lot 30, concession 3, located in 
1835. His son Ralph now lives on the homestead. 
His second son, George Edward, now of Kansas City, 
U.S., is a musician and composer of more than local 

Andrew Fleming, born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, 
settled on lot 9, concession 3, 1834. He left a number 

The Pioneers. 


of descendants worthy of the name to form a clan 
in the New World. One of them, his namesake, now 
occupies the homestead. 

Of the other names which belong to a later date of 
settlement, many are treated under other chapter 
headings and need not be referred to more particu- 
larly here. 

When this chapter was first undertaken, it was 
intended to give a brief account of all the families in 
the township, but when the material was sent in, it 
was found to be so incomplete, and to contain so many 
apparently conflicting statements, that it was decided 
to select only a few of the earliest families whose 
experiences might, in a general way, represent all. 

Imperative as this decision was, it is not the less 
regrettable, both on account of the fact that so much 
valuable information has been brought together, and 
because of the desirability that family records of the 
kind in question should be compiled. The manu- 
script, however, is preserved, and is available for 
future use, should it ever be decided to prepare a 
Scarboro Family Book. 

62 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


Sing ho ! for the land of the bracing north, 

For the land of the maple tree, 
Whose million of fields of gold extend 

From the east to the western sea. 
Oh, ho ! for the land of a thousand lakes, 

Where a myriad rivers run, 
Where leaps the bold blood of a hardy race 

In the heart of each sturdy son. 

May the God of the nations prosper her, 

May Canada's fame increase ; 
May the leaf of the maple proudly wave 

Till time shall forever cease. 

Sing ho ! for the land of the northern lights. 

Where they flash in the winter sky, 
And shine like the deeds of heroes dead 

Who were strong in the years gone by. 
Then here's to the land of the brave and free. 

And of women divinely fair, 
Where nature is glad and the sunlight laughs 

As it gleams in the buoyant air. 

Sing ho ! for the land of the warlike north, 

For a Brock and a Lundy's Lane ; 
Let foeman but touch our sacred soil 

And we'll show him our might again. 
Sing ho ! for the land of our birth and pride, 

For a nation that yet shall be 
As splendid, as famed, and as numberless 

As the leaves of her maple tree. 

— William T. Allison. 


On the Farm. 63 


"The first farmer was the first man, and all historic nobility rests on 
possession and use of land." — Emerson. 

" In ancient times, the sacred plough employed 
The kings and awful fathers of mankind." 

— Thomson. 

" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield ; 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their team afield ! 

How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! " 

— Gray. 

POSSESSING-, as Scarboro does, almost every 
variety of soil, from the sandy in the south to 
the clay loam and heavy clay of the centre and north, 
the methods of tillage pursued differ accordingly, but 
in most cases it may be said that agriculture is 
intelligently followed, and the results will correspond 
favorably with those of any other similar area in 

Without exception the original settlers were char- 
acterized, not by industry alone, but by that strong 
common-sense which, while it accepts the inevitable, 
strives as best it lasij to adapt means to ends. It 
was, perhaps, a fortunate circumstance, that from the 
earliest years, those who took up land were not all. 
or even mainly, from any particular place. Scotsmen, 
Englishmen, Irishmen and natives of the United 
States mingled fraternally and exchanged opinions. 

■64 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The social friction proved beneficial all round, and 
manifested its good effects, especially in the chosen 
occupation of the people. During the first half of the 
century, some of the best farming in Upper Canada 
was conducted in this township, and many of the 
farms were brought to a condition scarcely, if at all, 
inferior to the best in Great Britain.* 

Up to this date, Scarboro has maintained its agri- 
cultural reputation, and some of the very finest farms 
■on our continent may be found in this township. 
Special reference is made to one of these in the 
following pages, although it is but fair to state that 
there are other farms in Scarboro, quite equal to 
■" Kelvin G-rove " in all that goes to constitute high- 
class, successful treatment of the soil. 

The extracts that follow from the records of the 
Agricultural Society tell their own tale, and a run 
through the township will demonstrate the correctness 
of all deducible inferences. 

The Scarboro Agricultural Society was formed on 
the first day of January, A.D. 1844. The subscription 
for each member was five shillings. The officers were 
a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, 
and not less than twelve Directors, to be chosen 

* " One of the best farms to be seen in this neighborhood is in the town- 
ship of Scarboro, belonging to Mr. Gates. He keeps a splendid tavern 
just ten miles from the City Hall, upon the plank road in Kingston Street, 
and his house is surrounded on both sides of the street with his farm, which 
'Contains about 300 acres, some of which extends to the borders of the lake. 
He takes care that every portion of it is well manured, having a large sup- 
ply made in his stables, and he grows everything upon his own farm that is 
consumed in his house except groceries. He catches as much fish as serves 
liis table all the year round, and makes as much sugar from his own maple 
grove as he wants, and kills his own mutton, beef and pork." — W. Brown's 
" Four Years in United States and Canada," p. 86. Leeds, 1849. 

On the Farm. 65 

The annual meeting was fixed for the first Friday of 
January in each year, and the office-bearers' meeting 
quarterly, on the first Friday of January, April, July 
and October. 

It was also decided to hold annually an exhibition 
of farm stock, produce and other articles, to be held 
on the first Friday of October in each year. 

It was determined, too, to hold a ploughing match if 
the funds would admit. 

The list of subscribers comprised: William Crone, J. P. 
Wheler, John Torrance, Thomas Brown, Arch. Malcolm, John 
Lee, Wm. Mason, Martin Snider, Joshua Sisley, Arch. Glen- 
dinning, John Stobo, Stephen Closson, R. D. Hamilton, Joseph 
Armstrong, W. H. Norris, Wm. Armstrong, Isaac Chester, Geo. 
Scott, Wm. March, Thos. Smith, Robert Reid, Rev. Jas. George, 
John Rogers, Thos. Paterson (Toronto), Jas. Finlay, Jas. Palmer, 
Ed. Cornell, Geo. Weir, Jas. A. Thomson, Jas. McCowan, Jas. 
Patton, Alex. Neilson, Geo. Monkman, Stephen Washington, 
Nicholas Richardson, Jonathan Gates, Geo. Bambridge, John 
Gibson, Joseph Johnson, Francis Muir, Wm. Devenish, David 
Marshall, Chas. Cornell, Wm. Fitzpatrick, David Brown, Thos. 
Jacques, Henry Howell, Alex. Bederact, Thos. Paterson, Jas. 
Carnaghan, Barbara Berwick, Thos. Whiteside, Jas. Lawrie, 
Benjamin Johnson, Geo. W. Post, Ed. Whitefield, Thos. Young^ 
Thos. Davidson, John Holmes, Wm. Clark, Robert Sellers, Jas. 
Davidson, Wm. Weir, Robert McCowan, John Ferguson, Wm. 
Paterson, Geo. Auburn, Allan McLean, W. D. Thomson, Wm. 
Hood, Jas. Harley. Total, 71 members. 

The officers elected were : President, Wm. Crone ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, J. P. Wheler ; Secretary, Stephen Closson ; Treasurer, 
Thos. Brown. 

£ S. D. 

Total received from members' subscriptions 17 15 
Government grant ..,,... 11 5 

Total £29 

66 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The first fair was held at Sisley's Hotel, Danforth Koad, 
on October 18th, 1844, when the following premiums were 
awarded : 

Brood mare 1st prize 10s. . . Jas. Patton. 

,1 , . . 2nd M 5s. . . Geo. Auburn. 

Two-year-old mare colt . . 1st prize . . Arch. Glendinning. 

n M II 2nd II . . Jas. McCowan. 

n horse n . . 1st n . . John Holmes. 

II II 11 . . 2nd II . . John Stobo. 

One-year-old mare n . 1st u . . T. Davidson. 

II II II . 2nd II . John Holmes. 

Aged bull 1st h . . H. Howell. 

One young bull 1st n . . Robt. McCowan. 

Milch cow 1st II . . Jas. Davidson. 

II 2nd II . . Jas. McCowan. 

Two-year-old heifer .... 1st n . . Geo. Auburn. 

11 11 .... 2nd 11 . . John Torrance. 

One-year-old n .... 1st n . . Robt. Reid. 

II II .... 2nd 11 . . Robt. Reid. 

Aged ram 1st n . . VVm. Mason. 

2nd 11 . . J. R Wheler. 

Ram lamb 1st n . . John Lee. 

II . : 2nd II . . Geo. Scott. 

Aged ewe 1st n . . J. P. Wheler. 

II 2nd 11 . . Geo. Scott. 

Ewe lamb 1st n . . J. P. "Wheler. 

2nd 11 . Geo. Scott. 

Boar Ist n . . John Lee. 

Sow 1st 11 . . John Lee. 

II 2nd II Geo. Weir. 


2 bush, fall wheat 1st prize . W. Paterson. 

" II II 2nd II . John Holmes. 

II spring II 1st n . . John Lee. 

II II II 2nd II . . A. McLean. 

On the Farm. 67 

2 bush, peas ; 1st prize . . A. McLean. 

" II 2nd II . . Wm. Mason. 

ir oats 1st II . . Jas. Patton. 

" II 2nd II . . J. Torrance. 

II potatoes 1st n . . Joshua Sisley. 

II S. turnips 1st .. . . John Torrance. 

II W. II 1st II . . Wm. Weir. 

4 lbs. butter 1st „ . . J. P. Wheler. 

" II 2nd II . . Jas. McCowan. 

2 lbs. cheese 1st n . . Jas. Patton. 

For stock, the prizes were 10s. and 5s. respectively for 1st 
and 2nd. 

For grain, potatoes, roots, butter and cheese, the prizes were 
5s. and 2s. 6d. for 1st and 2nd respectively. 

The total prizes awarded amounted to £13 7s. 6d. 

The second fair of the Agricultural Society was held at 
Sisley 's, on the 18th day of October, 1845. 

£ S. D. 

The total receipts were 39 10 

The expenditure was — 

Premiums awarded 27 10 

Ploughing match 2 10 

Printing 18 9 

Total £30 18 9 

Leaving a balance of £8 lis. 8d. to carry over to next account. 
The officers were the same as for the previous year. In addi- 
tion thirty-seven directors were elected. The total number of 
subscribers was eighty. 

Premiums were awarded — in horses, to M. Hutchinson, Jas. 
McCowan, Thos. Davidson, and Geo. Scott ; in cattle, to John 
Torrance, John Bell, Arch. Forfar, M. Davidson, and James 
McCowan ; in sheep, J. P. Wheler and A. Taylor ; in hogs, John 
Lee, D. Thomson, and Geo. Weir ; in grain, A. Glendinning, W. 
Clark, Alex. Neilson, Geo. Scott, John Torrance, Col. McLean, 
Jas. Patrick, J. P. Wheler, Thos. Brown ; in roots and potatoes, 

68 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

R. Reid, S. Washington, and J. P. Wheler ; in butter, James 
McCowan and Jas. Patrick; in cheese, Jas. McCowan and 
O. Scott. 

In 1846, the fair was again held at Joshua Sisley's, when 
£24 10s. was awarded in prizes. The successful competitors 
were : in horses, A. Forfar, A. Neilson, Wm. Mason, D. McBeath; 
in cattle, John Torrance, A. Taylor, Margt. Davidson, A. Forfar, 
E. Whitefield; in sheep, A. Taylor, G. Scott, George Miller; in 
hogs, Wm. Boynton, J. P. Wheler, A. Neilson, J. Donaldson ; 
in grain, J. P. Wheler, Wm. Devenish, Thos. Brownlee, James 
Patton, John Torrance, D. Thomson, W. Crone ; in potatoes 
and roots, S. Washington, J. Crawford, W. Crone ; in butter 
and cheese, Margt. Davidson, Jas. McCowan, John Torrance, 
Geo. Scott. 

The total amount of premiums awarded was £24 Is. The 
officers wei-e the same as for 1845. 

The fair in 1847 was also held at Sisley's, on Friday, the 
first day of October. One of the regulations was that any 
male animal taking a first prize was to remain in the township 
during the next ensuing season. The judges appointed were : 
For horses, John Thom, John Elliott (of Pickering), and Joseph 
Smith ; for cattle and sheep, William Mason, John Darling (of 
Markham), and Robert Reid; for butter, cheese, and roots, 
Wm. Devenish, Thos. Dowswell, and Edward Cornell. 

The successful exhibitors were : in horses, W. Miller, R. Reid, 
M. Hutchinson, W. Boynton, and Hugh Elliot; in cattle, A. 
Taylor, J. P. Wheler, G. Scott, Jas. Patton ; in sheep, W. Miller, 
Geo. Miller, and R. Reid; in pigs, W. Boynton, G. Scott, J. 
Ferguson, Alex. Wilson ; in potatoes, R. Reid, and J. Pilkey ; 
in roots, J. Patton, W. Crone, S. Washington ; in grain, J. P. 
Wheler, J. Gibson, Wm. Clark, J. Torrance, and Thos. Brownlee ; 
in cheese, George Scott and James McCowan ; in butter, Thos. 
Brownlee and Margt. Davidson. 

The total amount awarded was £22 7s. 6d. 

In 1848, a resolution was passed prohibiting any person not 
residing in the township from showing any description of pro- 
perty for competition at the annual show. The show was held 

On the Farm. 69 

at Sisley's, on October 13th, when £26 2s. 6d. was awarded in 

The fair for 1850 was held at J. H. Smith's tavern, Kennedy 
Road, when £15 2s. 6d. was awarded in prizes. 

The fair for 1851 was held at the same place, but no parti- 
culars are available. 

In 1852, the total number of subscribers was 121, and the 
total receipts were £44 os. 6d. 

The premiums awarded at the fall fair amounted to £25 Os. 6d. 

£ s. D. 
In 1853 the receipts from subscriptions 

were ' 19 7 6 

Balance from previous year 17 10 7 

Grant from Government 11 26 

Total £48 7 


£ S. D. 

There was paid in premiums 28 2 6 

Paid in printing 1 50 

M judges' dinners 18 9 

,1 balance to ploughmen 14 10 

By balance on hand 3 44 

The successful exhibitors were: in horses, J. P. Wheler, J. 
Crawford, R. Steers, George Scott, A. Glendinning and A. 
Forfar ; in cattle, G. Scott, A. Forfar, J. P. Wheler, J. Patton, 
W. Wride, J. Gould ; in sheep and swine, J. P. Wheler, G, Scott, 
J. Lawrie, William Wride ; in grain, J. P. Wheler, William 
Paterson, William Forfar, J. Sisley, J. Patton; in roots, J. 
Sisley, J. Crawford, J. P. Wheler, G. Ridout ; in dairy products, 
J. McCowan, A. Glendinning, William Hutcheson ; in imple- 
ments, James Gilray, J. Crowther, R. Sylvester. 

Fall fair, 1854. The total number of subscribers was 101. 

The fair was held at Malcolm's " Speed the Plough " Inn, 
Malvern, Markham Road, on October 6th, 1854. 

70 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The successful exhibitors were: in horses, J. P. Wheler, 
James Lawrie, James Patton, James Bowes ; in cattle, J. P. 
Wheler, James Patton, A. Young, John Wilson, Richard Collins; 
in sheep, Geo. Scott, J. P. Wheler; in swine, J. P. Wheler, 
William Wride, John Weir ; in grain, J. P. Wheler, William 
Paterson, John Muir, John Weir, James Patton ; in roots, Joshua 
Sisley, A. Glendinning, J. P. Wheler, John Weir ; in dairy pro- 
ducts, James Patton, A. Young, George Ridout, John Weir ; in 
implements, George Ley, James Bowes, R. Sylvester. The 
total amount awarded in prizes was £26. 

The annual meeting of the Agricultural Society was held at 
Malcolm's Inn, Markham Road. The following were elected 
office-bearers : 

President, J. P. Wheler ; Vice-President, J. H. Smith ; Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, A. Glendinning; Directors, William Paterson, 
James Lawrie, Robert Buchanan, William Hood, John Weir, 
William Mason, Robert Paterson, Thomas Crone and James 

The fall fair was held at Robertson's Inn, Kennedy Road, on 
October 26th, 1855, when the successful exhibitors were : in 
horses, J. P. Wheler, William Paterson, Andrew Young, A. P. 
Thomson; in cattle, J. P. Wheler, James Patton, William 
Wride, James Lawrie, John Crawford ; in sheep, J. P. Wheler, 
John Malcolm, George Scott, Joshua Sisley ; in swine, J. P. 
Wheler, John Malcolm; in grain, William Paterson, William 
Wride, John Malcolm, William Forfar, Joshua Sisley ; in roots 
and potatoes, J. P. Wheler, William Paterson, James Lawrie, 
John Malcolm, William Forfar, J. Sisley, F. Bell ; in implements, 
etc., George Ley, George Richardson, Richard Sylvester. The 
total amount awarded was £25 los. 

The officers for Scarboro Agricultural Society for 1856 were : 
President, J. P. Wheler ; Vice-President, J. H. Smith ; Secretary- 
Treasurer, Wm. Crawford. Directors — David Brown, Andrew 
Fleming, R. McCowan, Wm. Wride, Jas. Purvis, J. B. Burk, 
J. L. Paterson, Thos. Brown. 

The fair was held on October 10th, 1856. 

On the Farm. 71 

The successful exhibitors were : in horses, Wm. Wride, John 
Crawford, A. P. Thomson, Joshua Sisley, Jas. Lawrie, Wm. 
Paterson ; in cattle, J. P. Wheler, Wm. Wride, John Crawford, 
John Malcolm, Jas. Patton, Jas. Lawrie, Geo. Scott, Alex. Gibb ; 
in sheep, John Malcolm, Geo. Scott, Jas. Weir ; in swine, J. P. 
Wheler, Wm. Wride, John Malcolm ; in grain, Wm. Wride, Jas. 
Patton, A. P. Thomson, Joshua Sisley, Andrew Fleming, Andrew 
Walker ; in roots and potatoes, J. P. Wheler, J. Sisley, G. Eidout, 
Andrew Fleming ; in butter and cheese, Andrew Fleming, Alex. 
Wallace, Jas. Russell; in implements, John Malcolm, John 
Brown, John Burk, John Heck. 

The total amount awarded was £29 10s. 

The ofEcers of the Scarboro Agricultural Society for 1857 
were : President, J. P. Wheler ; Vice-President, Jas. Lawrie ; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Wm. Crawford. Directors — A. Fleming, 
Thos. Whiteside, Jas. Purvis, R. Sylvester, F. Scott, D. Brown, 
Wm. Wride, Alex. Thomson, John Hockridge. 

The fair was held at Hockridge's Inn, Kennedy Road, on 
Friday, October 16th, 1857. 

The successful exhibitors were : in horses, Jas. Lawrie, John 
Crawford, Wm. Crawford, Andrew Young, Geo. Scott, Andrew 
Taylor, Joshua Sisley, Mark Hutchinson, Wm. Oliver, Geo. 
Weir, D. Thomson, Alex. Muirhead, Geo. Graham ; in cattle, 
J. P. Wheler, Jas. Lawrie, Andrew Young, John Malcolm, John 
Torrance, Jas. Patton, Wm. Wride, Andrew Fleming ; in sheep, 
J. P. Wheler, Jas. Lawrie, John Malcolm, Geo. Scott ; in swine, 
John Malcolm, Wm. Wride ; in grain, Jas. Lawrie, Geo. Scott, 
Joshua Sisley, Wm. Wride, Andrew Fleming, Wm. Forfar, A. 
Glendinning ; in roots and potatoes, J. P. Wheler, John Malcolm, 
Wm. Irving, Wm. Paterson, John Weir ; in dairy products and 
bread, Andrew Young, Jas. Patton, John Chester, Wm. Irving, 
A. Glendinning, Wm. Paterson, John Stobo ; in implements, etc., 
J. Brown, J. Patton, J. Fowler, Joseph Bowden. 

The total amount awarded was £45 12s. 6d. 

The Scarboro Agricultural Society has held fairs each year 
since organization, and during the last twenty years the pro- 
gress of the Society has been steady, while the improvement 

72 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

both in the number and variety of the exhibits and in the 
amount offered in premiums has been marked. As a conse- 
quence, Scarboro breeders have become well known to American 
buyers — our magnificent heavy horses especially commanding 
very high prices. 

The fair held at Woburn, on the 27th day of September, 
1895, was one of the most successful in the Society's history, 
there being no fewer than 1,462 entries in the various classes, 
and a total amount of $1,110 was offered in prizes. 

There were entered for competition 139 horses, 71 cattle, 60 
sheep, 19 swine, 78 poultry; 190 entries were made in dairy 
products, 62 in grain and seeds, 211 in roots and potatoes, 361 
in fruit and garden products, 32 in implements and manufac- 
tures, 249 in ladies' work and fine arts. 

The following sums were awarded in prizes : For horses, 
$204; cattle, $80; sheep, $52; swine, $24; poultry, $24.50: 
dairy products, $137.50 ; grain and seeds, $46.50 ; roots and 
potatoes, $62; fruit and vegetables, $104.50; implements and 
manufactures, $51 ; and for fine arts and ladies' work, $85. 

The principal exhibitors were : in horses, Alf. Mason, W. 
Howard, Wm. Annis, W. C. Ormerod, Wm. Fisher, Thos. Hood, 
Jas. Maxwell, J. Chapman, J. Lawrie, A. Summerfeldt, H. Arm- 
strong, W. A. Noble, Wm. Milliken, Jas. Torrance, Jas. McGris- 
ken, J. Little, A. Coulson, P. Stewart, T. Jackson, J. Stobo, Wm. 
Mason, Wm. Loveless, G. E. Forfar, J. Ashbridge, L. Kennedy, 
J. Kirton, Thos. Walton and Wm. Doherty ; in cattle, John 
Lawrie, Crawford Bros., Wm. Fisher, John Little, A. A. Forfar, 
W. J. Haycraft, Jas. Lawrie and J. Miller ; in sheep, W. F. 
Pearson, J. W. Cowan, F. Wheler, J. Miller, P. Boynton and T. 
F. Boynton; in hogs, W. J. Haycraft and Boynton Bros.; in 
poultry, W. J. Haycraft, J. Lawrie, A. Martin, J. M. & Thos. 
Ramsey and G. Robins. 

In grain, S. Rennie, U. Young and T. & J. Manderson ; in 
roots and potatoes, W. B. Davidson, A. W. Thomson, S. Rennie, 
R. W. Thomson, G. McCowan, J. L. Paterson, W. White, S. 
Morgan, Geo. F. Morgan, P. Carroll, R. Sellers, J. McGrisken 
and U. Young ; in fruit, etc., R. W. Thomson, A. W. Thomson, 

On the Farm. 73 

H. T. Ormerod, J. Johnson, H. White, Alex. Baird, Wm. Patten, 
A. lonson, Thos. lonson, Alex. Neilson, D. Bean, J. Ashbridge, 
Wm. Loveless, Jas. Chester, J. Lawrie and J. Holmes ; in dairy 
products, Mrs. VVm. Mason, Miss A. Davidson, Miss Jackson, 
Miss N. Malcolm, Mrs. Alex. Baird, Mrs. Wm. Young, Mrs. F. 
Weir, Mrs. R. S. Powers, Mrs. Robert Chapman, Mrs. Adam 
Richardson and Mrs. W. W. Walton; in ladies' work, Mrs. S. 
Rich, Mrs. W. J. Haycraft, Mrs. R. S. Powers, Mrs. J. Holmes, 
Mrs. Cousins, Misses M. and A. Paterson, Miss M. Masou, Miss 
J. Forfar, Mrs. M. Secor, Mrs. G. Gray, Miss M. H. Thomson, 
Mrs. A. W. Forfar, Miss Beldam, Mrs. A. lonson. Miss N. Mal- 
colm, Miss E. Hammond, Miss A. Davidson, Miss F. Chester, 
Mrs. J. Chapman, Mrs. G. R. Forfar, Miss M. Jackson and Mrs. 
A. Mason; in implements and manufactures, D. Beldam, Jas. 
Ley, Jas. Gibson, A. W. Forfar, Thos. Ramsey, G. D. Davies 
and the Speight Waggon Co. 

The officers and directors of the Scarboro Agricultural So- 
ciety for the present year are : President, W. H. Tredway ; 
Vice-President, D. Beldam ; Directors — Wm. Doherty, T. Jack- 
son, T. Pherrill, W. W. Walton, G. R. Forfar, Geo. C. Chester, 
J. Ramsey, W. J. Haycraft and Geo. Little ; Auditors — A. M. 
Secor and Alex. Baird ; Sec'y-Treas., Alex. McCowan. 


The East York Farmers' Institute, composed largely of 
Scarboro farmers, originated ^.t a meeting held at Ellesmere, 
February 11th, 1886, called for the purpose of forming an 
association for mutual improvement and protection. 

An association was accordingly formed, to be known as "The 
East Riding of York Farmers' Association." 

The officers were: J. T. Brown, President; A. Richardson, 
1st Vice-President; George May, 2nd Vice-President; W. D. 
Fitzpatrick, Secretary ; W. W. Walton, Treasurer. 

Various committees were appointed, and the first subject 
selected for discussion was, " The feeding of cattle for the pro- 
duction of milk." 

74 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


The former Association was continued until July, 1887, when 
the East York Farmers' Institute was organized at a meeting 
held at Ellesmere, by the election of J. T. Brown as President ; 
A. Richardson, Vice-President; Alex. McCowan, Secretary; 
Thos. Whiteside, Treasurer. 

The directors were : F. Armstrong, J. Leadley, George Smith, 
Jos. Tingle, R. Galbraith, Geo. Elliot, B. Carnaghan, D. Marshall, 
Frank Glendinning, and W. Glendinning. 

Since organization, the Institute has held meetings regularly 
every second week during the winter months, principally at 
Ellesmere and Agincourt ; and special yearly mass-meetings, 
addressed by delegates sent by the Department of Agriculture. 
At these meetings subjects connected with agriculture are dis- 
cussed. Among the subjects engaging the attention of the 
Institute have been : " The improvement of stock ; " " Breeding 
of Clydesdale horses ; " " Rotation of crops ; " " The selection 
and cultivation of fruit trees ;' "Buying, feeding and marketing 
of cattle for the British market ;" " Sheep-feeding and raising;" 
" Farm Fences ; " " Statute Labor ; " " Country Roads ; " " Farm 
Insurance ; " " Poultry on the Farm ; " " Bees on the Farm ; " 
" Farm Help ; ' " Mistakes made in Farming ; " and kindred 

J. T. Brown held the ofHce of President until 1890, when 
Andrew Hood succeeded him, and held that office until 1892. 
John Leadley was President in 1892 and '93. L. Kennedy was 
President in 1894-95. 

T. M. Whiteside was elected Secretary in 1888, and continued 
in that office until 1892, when J. C. Clark succeeded him. 

The present officers are: A. Richardson, President; W. J. 
Haycraft, 1st Vice-President ; Jos. Armstrong, 2nd Vice-Presi- 
dent ; J. C. Clark, Secretary ; Geo. Elliot, Treasurer. Directors 
— S. Rennie, E. Wood, J. Elliot, Wm. Johnson, and J. Kennedy. 

The membership for 1895 was seventy-seven.* 

*The foregoing account of the Agricultural Societies and Farmers' 
Institutes was supplied by J. 0. Clark. 

TYPICAL BUILDINGS— Old, and Recent. 

1. Old Log Barn. 2. Old Log Blacksmith Shop. 3. Malvern Hall. 

4. Barn (transition period). 5. Farm Steading of To-day. 

6. Side-drive Barn. 7. End-drive Barn. 

On the Farm. 75 


J. P. Wheler deserves the credit of having done much to 
improve the stock of the township and of the Province by his 
enterprise in the importation, first, of Durham, and, more 
recently, of Ayrshire cattle, many of which secured the highest 
premiums awarded at local and provincial fairs. 

John Torrance, sen., is also well known as an importer of 
Ayrshire cattle and draught horses. Mr. Torrance's efforts to 
improve stock have been crowned with well-merited success. 

John Hockridge was one of the first importers of Leicester 
sheep, early in the " forties." He lived on the Kennedy Road. 

Others who devoted themselves to the importation of thor- 
oughbreds were James Lawrie, George Scott, John and William 
Crawford, and Simon Beattie, most of whom included horses, 
cattle and sheep in their enterprise ; the Grawfords making a 
specialty of Ayrshire cattle and Clydesdale horses. Mr. Beattie, 
too, favored Clydesdale horses. 

With so many noted importers and breeders in the township, 
it is little wonder that in stock, as in other departments, Scar- 
boro stands so high at the present day. 


From an early date in the history of the township there 
seems to have been a disposition, or rather a determination, .to 
conduct farming in a manner superior to the slip-shod methods 
that characterized many other portions of the Province. The 
•presence of huge pine stumps did not, however, favor " scientific" 
ploughing, but as soon as these provoking obstacles could be 
removed, a desire was evinced to emulate the accurate " rig and 
fur " performances of Old Country ploughmen. 

Mr. Wm. Brown already quoted, wrote in the " forties " : 
" Everything you see and hear [in Scarboro] reminds you of 
your English home. You will see as good ploughing and gen- 
eral farm management as you do in the best parts of England." 

Mr. A. M. Secor, one of the oldest living natives of the town- 
ship, thinks there was a ploughing match held on the farm of Mr. 

76 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

E. Stobo,lot 21, concession C (Kingston Koad), in 1830 or 1831, 
and that the ploughmen were, Messrs. J. Torrance and A. Gled- 
dinning; and J. L. Paterson states that there was a plough- 
ing match held (he thinks, at Ed. Cornell's), about 1832 or 
1833, in which the late Wm. Hood was a competitor, Abraham 
Torrance taking first prize. 

In 1836, a ploughing match came off on the farm of David 
Annis, lot 16, concession C, the principal and only competitors 
being Jas. Patton and J. Atkinson. 

Another account says the first ploughing match was held at 
Robert Stobo's place in 1833, when R. Stobo. R. McNair, and 
one of the Torrances took prizes, and that another match was 
held where part of Toronto now stands, in 1835, the prize- 
takers being John Lawrie, Archibald Thomson, and Jas. Patton, 
all of Scarboro. He further states that in 1836 or 1837, among 
those who carried off the honors were Jas. Patton, Abraham 
Torrance and John Lawrie. It was probably at this match 
(some think it was in 1838) that Walter Crone took first prize 
in the boys' class, his ploughing being thought the best on 
the field. 

But most of those, and probably even some earlier trials of 
skill now wholly forgotten, were individual, rather than general, 
in their character, and it was not until the organization of the 
Scarboro Agricultural Society in January, 1844, that it became 
possible to manage such friendly contests in a regular manner. 
Notwithstanding the cautious nature of the Society's resolution 
only "to hold a ploughing match if the funds would permit," the 
hearty support extended to this movement warranted a com- 
petition in the following spring,* and we find accordingly that 
" The first ploughing match under the auspices of the Scarboro 
Agricultural Society was held at Arch. Muir's, Kingston Road, 
on April 26th, 1844, when there were eight competitors. 

The first prize (£1 10s.), was awarded to John Gibson ; sec- 
ond (£1 5s.), to Archibald Glendinning ; third (£1), to Joshua 
Sisley ; fourth (15s.), to Wm. Crone, a total of £4 10s. 

* The statement following is almost word for word as written by J. C. 
Clark, of Agincourt. 

On the Farm. 77 

The judges were Jas. Patton, And. Bertram and Ed. Cornell. 

The second ploughing match under the auspices of the Scar- 
boro Agricultural Society was held April, 1845, on the farm of 
Chas. Cornell, Kingston Road. 

The judges were Jas. McCowan, Thos. Brown and Wm. 
Clark, jun. 

In this match there were to be two classes, viz., one for Old 
Countrymen, and one for Canadians. The time of the match to 
be at the rate of an acre in ten hours. Only two prizes were 
awarded — first, to Jas. Patton (£1 10s.); second, to Alex. Wilson 
(£1), the rest of the competitors failing to complete their work 
in the time required. 

The third annual ploughing match was held in April, 1846. 
In this there were two classes, those under, and those over 
seventeen years of age. 

The prizes for those over seventeen were awarded : first, to 
John Gibson ; second, to John Crone ; third, to Arch. Glen- 
dinning ; fourth, to Joshua Sisley. 

Prizes for those under seventeen : first, to John Wakefield ; 
second, to Wm. Wakefield ; third, to J. Pilkey. At this match 
£7 was awarded in prizes. 

The fourth ploughing match was held April 22nd, 1847, on 
lot 28, concession D. 

The successful competitors were : In class one — first, Jas. Pat- 
ton ; second, John Gibson ; third, John Wakefield. In second 
class — first, William Wakefield ; second, J. Pilkey. 

The fiftli ploughing match was held April 22nd, 1848, at W. 
Buchanan's, lot 33, concession 3, in the L'Amaroux Settlement. 

The successful competitors were : first, Jas. Patton ; second, 
Wm. Hood ; third, J. Sisley. Junior class : first, J. L. Paterson ; 
second, W. Wakefield ; third, J. Pilkey. 

The sixth ploughing match was held in 1849, at Asa Post's, 
township of Pickering, when twenty premiums were awarded 
to the twenty best ploughmen, these to be selected to plough 
against an equal number from Whitby. 

The following were the ploughmen for Scarboro : J. Crone, 
John Weir, George Evans, James Weir, William Addison, James 

78 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Patton, J. Torrance, R. Gilchrist, William Hood, John Crawford, 
J. Morrison, John Wakefield, J. L. Paterson, Thomas Crone, 
Joshua Kennedy, William Weir, Robert Addison, A. P. Thom- 
son, A. Bertram, and James McCowan. 

The Scarboro men defeated those from Whitby. 

The following is an extract from the treasurer's book as to 
expenses incurred in connection with this competition : 

£ S. D. 

To bill for dinners at William Palmer's 

in Pickering 21 

Pay for beer on the field 5 

II Mr. Brown [Geo. ?] for printing 2 15 

M Turnpikes (tolls) 1 50 

In 1850, a ploughing match was held at lot 31, concession D 
(Mr. John Martin's), at which 15s. was awarded to each of the 
twenty best ploughmen, these to be selected to plough a match 
against an equal number from Vaughan. The judges for Scar- 
boro were John Weir, of Reach ; J. Gibson, of Markham ; 
William Crone and James Darling. 

The following is extracted from the Treasurer's account : 

1850. £ s. D. 

To paid Mr. Sheppardson 20 

200 bills 1 00 

Township bills 76 

Beer on the field* 50 

Turnpikes [tolls] 60 

Postage 1 1| 

Total £21 19 7i 


June 14th, to paid the 20 men 20 

II M II expenses as above £21 19 7^ 

The balance £3 Os. 4|d. was divided among the ploughmen. 

* Mr. David Martin says that this does not account for all the beer, that 
there were three booths, that his father supplied a keg, and that he himself 
carried the beer around, and hia brother Robert distributed the cakes. 

On the Farm. 79 

In 1851, another ploughing match between Scarboro and 
Vaughan came off near Thornhill in the latter township, when 
Scarboro achieved even a more decisive victory." 

At this point a break may be made in Mr. Clark's annals to 
introduce an interesting statement by Mr. David Martin, 
explanatory of the origin of the inter-township contests just 
mentioned : 

" For some time previous to the period above referred to (1849 
to 1851), a spirit of rivalry had existed between the townships 
of Whitby and Darlington, and a good deal of chaffing was 
indulged in with regard to the merits of their respective 
ploughmen. In order to bring matters to an issue and thus 
end the controversy, Whitby sent out a challenge, open to any 
township in the Province, conditions to be twenty men and 
$100 a side. 

This was done with the expectation that Darlington would 
instantly take up the gauntlet thus thrown down. This, how- 
ever, the latter failed to do, and the challenge remaining open 
for some time, was at length accepted by Scarboro. This was 
in the spring of 1849, and the match at which these twenty 
men were selected to meet Whitby, was held on lot 33, in the 
3rd concession, at that time tenanted by William Buchanan. 
The representatives of the respective townships met each other 
half way, viz., on the farm of Asa Post in the township of 
Pickering, Scarboro winning easily. One of the conditions 
of the match was that the winners be bound to accept a chal- 
lenge from any other township in the Province, if made within 
one year. 

The following spring, viz., 1850, Vaughan challenged Scar- 
boro to a trial of skill, number of men and stakes to be the 
same as before. The match at which the twenty were chosen 
to meet Vaughan took place on the farm of John Martin, lot 
31, concession D, April 26th. And a few days after, the 
Scarboro ploughmen met their opponents on the farm of M. 
Welch, near Thornhill, township of Markham, the Scarboro 
men beating Vaughan scarcely less decisively than they had 
Whitby the previous year. This result was a surprise to the 

80 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Vaughan ploughmen, who attributed their defeat to every 
reason but the true one, viz., the superior skill of their oppo- 
nents ; and what rendered the defeat all the more galling was 
the presence of the Earl of Elgin, the iirst and last Governor- 
General to grace a ploughing match' with his presence. This 
extreme dissatisfaction on the part of Vaughan prompted them 
to challenge Scarboro again in the following spring. The latter, 
of course, at once accepted, and twenty of her best men were 
again chosen at a match held on lot 28, concession D, then 
occupied by Mr. George Evans. Rigfoot Farm, Markham, the 
property of the late George Miller (the celebrated importer of 
Durham cattle and Leicester sheep), was chosen as the battle 
ground on which the question of supremacy was to be settled. 
The honors again remained with Scarboro, Vaughan sustaining 
a more signal defeat than before. 

The ploughmen of the latter township were now more dis- 
satisfied than ever, and the following spring issued a third 
challenge, conditions as to number of men and stakes same as 
on the two previous years. Scarboro, however, having now 
beaten Vaughan twice, refused to be bound by the former con- 
ditions, but offered to meet them with thirty men a side, the 
stakes to be doubled. Vaughan accepted. Scarboro held a 
match on the farm of James lonson, lot 29, concession D, at 
which the requisite thirty were selected. Vaughan, however, 
now began to haggle and to demand such unreasonable changes 
in the conditions on which the match was to be held, that 
Scarboro refused to entertain them, and after a great deal of 
bickering the match was declared off. 

These contests led to a marked improvement in what to the 
husbandman is a most important and necessary art. The 
ploughs used, it may be proper to state, were mostly imported 
from the celebrated makers, R. Gray and Sons, XJddingston, 
near Glasgow, Scotland. 

Another matter may also be mentioned here. Although 
not having any necessary connection with ploughing, yet it 
serves to illustrate a great change in the social habits of the 
people. It was then quite common to see three or four liquor- 

On the Farm., 81 

bars in the field in full blast, the hotel-keeper holding that his 
license conferred the right to sell drink anywhere within the 
limits of the municipality. Nobody questioned it ; indeed, it 
was thought quite a convenience to have the supply there, a 
state of matters which public opinion would not now tolerate 
for an instant. 

No record of these matches having been kept, it is now diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, to obtain the names of all the plough- 
men who took part in them, but the following list may be 
taken to be correct as far as it goes ; some of them ploughing 
in one match and some in another — those marked with an 
asterisk certainly in all of them : 

*James Patton, *John L. Paterson, *James McCowan, *Archi- 
bald P. Thomson, *George Evans, *John Crone, *James Weir, 
*Thos. Crone, *John Weir, John Crawford, *Wm. Weir, Joshua 
Sisley, *John Wakefield, Geo. Burk, Wm. Wakefield, Archibald 
Browning, *Wm. Hood, Robert Gilchrist, Walter Hood, Andrew 
Bertram, Henry Mason, John Cash, Wm. Addison." 

Proceeding with Mr. Clark's account, we find that " In 1852, 
at the annual meeting of the Agricultural Society, held pro- 
bably on lot 28, concession D, it was moved by J. P. Wheler, 
and seconded by Mr. Palmer, ' that the money now lying in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and belonging to the Ploughmen's 
Society, remain in the Treasurer's hands for six months.'" 

In 1854, at the annual meeting of the Agricultural Society, 
held at John Malcolm's Inn, Markham Road, a communication 
was received from Messrs. P. Paterson & Son, Toronto, placing 
at disposal of the Society a double-mounted iron plough as a 
premium to be competed for at the annual ploughing match. 
A vote of thanks was passed to the Messrs. Paterson for the gift. 

The entrance fee was placed at 25s. for each ploughman, and 
the total amount was to be divided into a number of additional 

The ploughing match was held at Mr. Arch. Malcolm's farm, 
on the 5th of May, when the following ploughmen competed: 
Jas. Patton, Jas. Hamilton, Thos. Mason, John Paterson, Robt. 

82 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Paterson, Geo. Evans, J. Sisley, John Weir, Chas. Curtis, Wm. 
Breckon, Robert Gilchrist (of Scarboro), Wm. Hood (of Mark- 
ham), Geo. Strachan, Geo. Burk, Josh. Lotton, Jas. Eosson (of 
Pickering), Wm. Dalziel, and Henry White (of Vaughan). 
The prizes were awarded as follows : 

First Class. 

1st. Jas. Patton, Scarboro Iron plough. 

2nd. Roht. Paterson, Scarboro £3 5s, 

3rd. Joshua Lotton, Pickering 3 

4th. Chas. Curtis, Scarboro 215 

5th. Geo. Burk, Pickering 2 10 

6th. Thos. Mason, Scarboro 2 5 

7th. Wm. Hood, Markham 2 

8th. Geo. Strachan, Pickering 115 

9th. Wm. Dalziel, Vaughan 1 10 

10th. John Paterson, Scarboro ........ 1 5 

11th. Geo. Evans, Scarboro 1 

12th. Jas. Rossen, Pickering 15 

13th. Wm. Breckon, Scarboro 010 

Second Class. 

Boys under eighteen years of age and residents in the town- 

1st. Geo. Breckon £1 5s. 

2nd. Duncan Malcolm 1 

At the first quarterly meeting of the Scarboro Agricultural 
Society for 1855, held at Robertson's Inn, April 6th, it was 
moved, seconded, and 

Resolved, — That the purse of £50 * won from the ploughmen 
of Vaughan Township, shall be equally divided among the men 
who ploughed at the several matches between the townships, 
giving each ploughman a share in proportion to the number of 
matches at which he ploughed. 

The ploughing match was held on the farm of Mr. James 

* As £50 currency was equal to $200, the " purse " must have meant the 
two years' winnings. 

On the Farm. 83 

lonson, on the 4th day of May, 1855. This match was restricted 
to residents of the township, and there were two classes, those 
over the age of twenty years and those under that age. The 
successful competitors were : 

First Class. 

£ S. D. 

1st. Robert Paterson, iron plough, value 9 

2nd. James Weir, cash 1 5 

3rd. John Paterson, cash , 1 

4th. John Weir, cash 15 

Second Class. 

1st. Arch. Malcolm, cash 2 50 

2nd. Robert Muir, cash 1 15 

3rd. George Patton, cash 1 50 

4th. George Breckon, cash 15 

The ploughing match for 1856 was held at Mr. John 
Malcolm's farm, Clyde Bank, on Friday, the 1st day of May, 
when the following were the successful competitors : 
First class, all ploughmen over the age of 18 years : 

£ s. D. 

1st prize, Robert Muir 1 50 

2nd n Arch. Malcolm 1 00 

3rd M George Patton 15 

4th II James Cooper 10 

Second class, boys under 18 years of age: 

1st prize, Watson Wride 1 50 

2nd „ David Burk 1 00 

The annual ploughing match for 1857 was held on the farm 

of William Bell, Kennedy Road, on Friday, April 24th. At 

this there were two classes, as formerly. The following prizes 

were awarded : 

Senior Class. 

£ S. D. 

1st prize, John Bushby 2 10 

2nd .f Arch. Malcolm 2 50 

3rd If George Evans 2 00 

84 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

£ S. D. 

4th prize, George Walton 115 

5th M Eiehard Burk 1 10 

6th „ Robert Muir 1 50 

7th ,, Wm. Thomson 1 00 

8th „ Joseph Stark 15 

9th n George Patton 10 

Second Class. 

1st prize, David Burk 1 10 

2nd II Simpson Rennie 1 5 

3rd II George Sheppard 1 26 

4th II Watson Wride 1 

5th II Francis Papineau 17 6 

6th „ Robert Skelton 15 

7th M George Morgan 12 6 

8th II John Wride 10 

9th „ John Brown 7 6 

A special prize was awarded to William Sylvester of £1 2s. 6d. 

From 1857 the progress of ploughing in the township was 
rapid, and it may be said that the next twenty years saw the 
development and culmination of this art, bringing to the front 
the Rennies, Hoods, Morgans, Patersons, Malcolms, Pattons, 
Weirs, Kennedys, and Stewart, of the first class, and Ormerods, 
Vradenburg, Ley, Pickering, Telfer, Masons, Burk, Keats, Yeo- 
mans, Wood, Dix, Littles, Shadlock, Steers, and others of the 
second class. 

It may be doubted whether their acknowledged superiority 
could have been attained by Scarboro ploughmen had they not 
had the services of a skilful mechanic in the constructing and 
adjusting of their ploughs. Thus the artisan at the forge, and 
the ploughman in the field were enabled to evolve an implement 
constructed on scientific principles, thoroughly adapted to the 
work of moulding and placing the upturned soil in the position 
required by judges of what constitutes perfect ploughing. 

The right kind of mechanic was found in James Ley, whose 
shop, for weeks before an important match took place, was 

On the Farm. 85 

thronged with ploughmen from near and far, while the glow of 
the forge and the merry ring of the anvil could be seen and 
heard far into the night. Mr. Ley's iron ploughs have still a 
reputation in the Province second only, if indeed, second, to 
that of the Grays, of Uddingaton, Scotland. 

Charles White, of Milliken (who, though not a resident of 
the township, had a shop located so near the border as to be 
under the influence of the prevailing ploughing sentiment), also 
contributed to the success of Scarboro ploughmen, and was 
considered by many to be quite as skilful as Mr. Ley. 

At a ploughing match held near London in the fall of 1865, 
S, Rennie took third place among eighty-three competitors. 
The judges, moreover, paid a high compliment to Mr. Rennie's 
work by saying it was done more in accordance with scientific 
principles than that of any of his competitors, and they re- 
gretted that he had been assigned to a field the soil of which 
was such that high-class work was impossible. 

At another match, under the auspices of the Agriculture and 
Arts Association, held near Hamilton in the following year, 
Andrew Hood took second prize, and another Scarboro-taught 
ploughman, in the person of his brother, Walter Hood, of An- 
caster, was awarded first. 

At Brooklin, in 1868, over sixty ploughmen competed. In 
the first class, of five prizes awarded, four came to Scarboro, 
viz. : S. Eennie, first ; Adam Hood, second ; Wm. Hood, third ; 
and Andrew Hood, fifth. In the second class, a Scarboro 
ploughman, William Patton, took first prize. At this match 
the time allowed was twelve hours to an acre, while the length 
of the lots was under twenty rods. The time taken up in 
turning was thus increased. The field abounded in stones, and 
in the hurry and excitement of a close finish an enthusiastic 
Scarboro ploughman did not notice that he had lost a portion 
of his ploughshare, which loss, however, did not prevent his 
taking a first place. 

October 21st, 1876, was a red-letter day in the history of 
Scarboro ploughing, as the provincial match under the auspices 
of the Agriculture and Arts Association was held on that date 

86 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

on the farm of Hugh Clark, lot 29, concession 4, near where 
Agincourt station now stands. 

The committee in charge was composed of Messrs. Wilmot, 
Aylesworth and Graham, representing the Agriculture and 
Arts Association ; Messrs. Tran, Wheler, Crawford, Speight and 
Eennie, representing the East York Agricultural Society, and 
John Little, representing the Scarboro Agricultural Society. 
John Crawford was appointed Secretary of Committee, and 
$658 was awarded in prizes. The judges were James Borland 
(Darlington), James Weir and George Burk (Scarboro), for 
the first class ; Wm. Foley (Darlington), James McCowan and 
Jas. Weir, for the second class ; Geo. Shaw (Darlington), Peter 
Bristol (Bath), and John Coxworth, for the third, fourth and 
fifth classes. Among the 1,500 spectators was Wm. Hood, sen., 
than whom there is none more deserving of a niche in the his- 
tory of the agricultural development of the township. Mr. 
Hood had three sons competing in this match, and each of them 
obtained a first prize. 

The Markham Economist said of this gathering : " The 
committee, judges, ploughmen, and many of the visitors were 
very generously entertained by Mr. Clark, who, with his good 
lady and family, were untiring in their efforts to promote the 
comfort of their guests, and their hospitality will be long 
remembered by the numerous participants." 

Mr. S. Rennie was equally generous ; in fact, all the farmers 
residing within a radius of two miles made visitors welcome. 

The judges said they had never seen such uniformly good 
ploughing, nor so much done in one day, while no dissatisfaction 
was apparent. 

In the first class there were twelve entries and five prizes. 
Of these, three were won by Scarboro ploughmen, viz.: first, 
Andrew Hood ; second, John Morgan, and the fifth, Jas. G. 

In the second class there were twenty-five entries, and the 
first five prizes were secured by Scarboro men, viz. : first, Thos. 
Hood; second, Thos. Keats; third, A. Smith; fourth, Wesley 
Ormerod, and fifth, Alex. Stewart. 

Prize ploughmen. 

On the Farm. 87 

In the third class, Adam Hood took first prize. 

In the fourth class the Scarboro winners were : J. P. Mason, 
who took third prize ; J. Thomson, who took fourth, and 
Norman Malcolm, who won fifth. 

In the fifth class the Scarboro prize-takers were : J. R. Secor, 
who won first; W. Ormerod, who won third; Wm. Ferguson, 
fourth, and Arch. Paterson, sixth. 

At a provincial match held at Eglinton in 1878, Thos. Hood 
took first prize in first class. 

Adam Hood took first in third class, with Jas. Patton second. 

In 1888, at a ploughing match held near Montreal under the 
auspices of the Quebec Provincial Association of Agriculture 
and Arts, Andrew Hood won the first prize in the first class, a 
very handsome gold medal, valued at $75, and his brother-in- 
law, Wm. Milliken (Markham), took second prize. 

In 1890, the East York Ploughmen's Association was formed. 
The officers were: A. Quantz, President; John Little, of Scar- 
boro, Vice-President, and Thomas Hood, of Scarboro, Secretary- 
Treasurer. The Directors were : Wm. Hunter, Wm. Milliken, 
Wm. Hood, W. T. Hood, S. Ritter, D. C. Steele, F. W. Jackes, 
J. B. Gould and George Gormley, of Markham ; S. Rennie, Robt. 
Petch, J. G. Paterson, J. L. Paterson, Alex. Doherty, Andrew 
Hood and J. Morgan, of Scarboro. 

This association has held a ploughing match each year since 
its organization. 

In 1894, they received the Provincial grant, and held their 
match on the farm of Wm. Milliken, Markham. In the 
various classes there were sixty-two entries. In the first class 
the Scarboro winners were: F. Weir, who took second prize, and 
Thos. Little, who won sixth prize. In the second class R. 
Rennie took first prize ; Alex. Sterling, second ; Thos. Shadlock, 
fifth, and W. Bennett, sixth. In the third class Walter Pilkey 
took third prize. In the fourth class A. Thomson took second 
prize, and in the fifth class Jos. Nash took first prize ; Thos. 
Craig, second ; John Loveless, fifth, and Wm. Doherty, sixth. In 
the sixth class A. Bennett took first prize ; Thos. Bell, second ; 
John Monk, third ; Albert Mason, fourth ; R. Chapman, fifth ; 
Thos. Jackson, sixth ; F. Collins, seventh, and Geo. Beare, eighth. 

88 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The last match was held on October 31st, 1895, on the farm 
of John Lawrie, near Malvern, Scarboro, when there were 
thirty-nine entries. The Scarboro winners were : In the first 
class, George Little, who won fourth prize, and Thos. Little, who 
won fifth. In the second class R. Rennie took first ; Thos. 
Shadlock, second; Alex. Stirling, third, and Alex. Weir, fifth. In 
the third class Wm. Fisher won first prize ; Jos. Teeson, second ; 
S. Pickering, third; W. E. Bennett, fourth, and L. Thomson, sixth. 
In the fifth class Thos. Bell took second prize ; Albert Mason, 
third, Thos. Craig, fourth, and F. Collins, sixth. In the sixth 
class, John Malcolm took first prize, and C. Mason, second." 


For many years the implements used on the farm were 
primitive in design and rude in construction, but well adapted 
for the work they had to perform. Settlers from Britain 
quickly perceived that they must modify their views regarding 
such things by adapting themselves to the circumstances of a 
new country, as well as by philosophically accepting the inevit- 
able. But as the clearings increased in size and the stumps 
disappeared, the demand grew for implements and machinery to 
take the place of the old '' No. 4," or even less elegant and less 
efficient plough; the "Wild Goose" or a -shaped drag; the 
reaping-hook and scythe ; the fiail and the ancient methods of 
winnowing. When oxen became despised as aids on the farm, 
and horses came into general use, iron ploughs were imported 
from Scotland, and counterparts of them were produced here. 
Blacksmiths began to vie with each other in turning out the 
lightest, most wide-spreading, and most serviceable harrows ; 
the cradle displaced the hook, while lighter waggons and 
more comfortable sleighs took the places of the cumbrous 
vehicles that had done duty in pioneer days. No longer were 
the sleighs shod with strips of beech ; and the erstwhile spring- 
pole waggon-seat was supplanted by one supported on elastic 
steel. Then the day of machinery dawned. 

The first reaper, the " Hussey," was brought into the town- 
ship by Martin Snider in 1851, from Albany, N.Y. In the 

On the Farm. 89 

following year someone imbued with old fogy ideas, and 
inspired by diabolism, ruined this machine, upon which Mr. 
Snider immediately proceeded to Albany and procured another. 

Self-rakers were brought from Rochester in 1854. On the 
occasion of their introduction, on the 17th July in that year, a 
procession of seventeen waggons was formed, each carrying a 
reaper, and a parade was made along King Street, from the 
city to Scarboro. As self-rakers, these machines were not a 
success, and in most instances the rakes were removed and 
the bundles thrown off by hand. 

The Hussey reaping machine had to be drawn at a trot to 
make it work at all satisfactorily, especially when the grain 
stalks were a little damp ; and so exhausting was this work on 
horses that two teams had to be kept in the field for needful 
changes. The original reapers had no reels, but this defect 
was soon remedied, and improvements rendered the draught 
considerably lighter than it was at first. Some of the machines 
delivered the grain at the side so that cutting could be done 
without waiting for the sheaves to be made, but in most eases 
these were pushed off by a man on the rear of the machine, the 
binders following. Self -rakers came next, and after them the 
self-binder (about 1883), the latter performing its work, at 
first with wire, but afterwards with twine. 

John Morgan was the pioneer in the introduction of the 
mower, he having purchased a machine known as the " Kirby," 
and made by Massey in Newcastle in 1851. 

The six-horsepower "buzzer" followed the flail, but as it 
did not thoroughly separate the grain from the straw and chaff" 
the newer threshing machine took its place, and latterly, steam 
has been employed as the motive power instead of horses. 

Hugh Elliot and Peter Pilkey were among the first to run 
buzzers in this township. 

The first separators were imported from Rochester. 

At the other end in the line of development, it is stated that 
the steam threshing engine was introduced July 31, 1879, 

90 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

by David Beldam, who paid $1,216 for a Woodbridge machine. 
Mowing machines, too, have been considerably improved, and 
in connection with hay-making we have also the sulky-rake 
and the " tedder," all saving much labor and time. 

Even the sowing is not now performed by hand, broadcast 
and drill machines being employed for this purpose. 

Tillage is no longer confined to the old single plough and the 
harrow. In addition to innumerable improved forms of both of 
these, we have sulky and gang-ploughs and cultivators in great 
variety, which largely answer the purpose of both plough and 

Spades, shovels, hoes, manure-forks and hay-forks, as we 
have them to-day, are fully fifty per cent, lighter than those in 
use at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the same 
may be said regarding almost every other farm implement in 
which steel has taken the place of iron. Hand- tools, like those 
just mentioned, must ever retain a place on the farm, although 
they are not now employed to anything like the extent of their 
old-time application. Modern devices have largely displaced 
them all, except on the very smallest plots of ground, and every 
year decreases the amount of labor formerly done with such 
tools, the best illustration of which may be found in the pres- 
ent-day methods of loading and unloading hay by means of 
horse-power, which is also utilized to carry the material to the 
most distant part of the mow. Roots are no longer chopped 
with a cleaver; or slowly sliced with a knife ; a windy day is 
not now required to separate the chafiF from the wheat ; it is not 
now necessary to lose a day by going to mill for the purpose 
of having a few bags of coarse grain ground for feed ; even the 
pumping of water by hand has ceased on many farms, and in 
all the above instances machines of one kind and another, 
whatever their motive power may be, have rendered obsolete 
the older and simpler, but more laborious methods. 

In the dairy, too, it would astonish our grandmothers if they 
could have but a peep or two at the way things are managed 
where there is a dairy ; but on many farms this department 
has become most modest in its proportions and equally so in its 

On the Farm. 91 

aims, for the milk, when not sent to a joint-stock company's 
creamery or cheese factory, is usually dispatched in large cans 
to supply the wants of Toronto's population. 

The vast improvement that has taken place in implements 
has enabled the farmer to dispense with the employment of so 
many extra " hands " as were formerly required during busy 
seasons, and has not only rendered it necessary for him to pro- 
vide special accommodation for the housing of his machines, 
but has laid upon him the obligation to become, in considerable 
measure, a mechanic. 

His wife, too, has profited not a little from the nowadays 
order of things. Of course, she is still kept busy, or, rather, 
she keeps herself busy. She has convinced herself that 
" woman's work is never done," and she is determined to live 
up to this creed or perish in the attempt ; but when all her 
old-fashioned and ever-necessary daily dusting, and sweeping, 
and cooking have been performed, she has now much more 
leisure to knit a little, to " piece and patch " a little, to read a 
little, and even to exchange confidences with her neighbor. 

The results consequent on the development of electrical 
science during the twentieth century, now almost within hail- 
ing distance, are certain to revolutionize agricultural methods 
in a still more marked degree than has yet been effected, and 
in no way will the change be more noticeable than in the 
variety and structure of farm implements. Through the wind- 
mill, and by other agencies (until the time is reached when solar 
heat itself shall be cheaply transformed into electrical energy), 
batteries will be charged as motors for the plough, the harrow, 
the reaping and all other machines that now require the use of 
horses. Even weeds may be exterminated and plant-growth 
regulated by the same mysterious means, while scarcely any- 
thing can be more certain that not only will heat and light for 
domestic purposes be similarly supplied, but that the farmer of 
the future will market his produce and ride to church in elec- 
trically propelled vehicles. 

92 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


It can be said of the township of Scarboro that it occupies 
the proud position of having the farm that won the gold medal 
and the sweepstakes prize awarded by the Provincial Govern- 
ment in 1883 and 1886, respectively. 

When the instructions given to the judges, and the number 
of farms entered upon the list of competition are known, the 
distinction gained and the honors won are all the more gratifying. 

The instructions to the judges were in the "following terms : 
" In addition to any other points that may be thought desirable 
by the judges, the following shall be taken into consideration 
in estimating what is ' the best-managed farm ' : 

1. The competing farm to be not less than one hundred 
acres, two-thirds of which must be under cultivation. 

2. The nature of the farming — whether mixed dairy, or any 
other mode — to be the most suitable under conditions effected 
by local circumstances. 

3. The proper position of the buildings in relation to the 
whole farm. 

4. The attention paid to the preservation of timber, and 
shelter, by planting of trees. 

5. The condition of any private roads. 

6. The character, sufficiency and condition of fences, and 
the manner in which the farm is subdivided into fields. 

7. Improvements by removal of obstacles to cultivation,, 
including drainage. 

8. General condition of buildings, including dwelling-house, 
and their adaptability to the wants of the farm and family. 

9. The management, character, suitability, condition and 
number of live-stock kept. 

10. The number, condition and suitabihty of implements 
and machinery. 

11. State of the garden and orchard. 

12. Management of farm-yard manure. 

13. The cultivation of crops, to embrace manuring, cleaning, 
produce per acre in relation to management, and character of 
soil and climate. 

On the Farm. 93 

14. General order, economy and water supply. 

15. Cost of production and relative profits." 

In 1883 the group comprised the counties of Card well, Peel, 
York, Ontario, Durham, Simcoe, Muskoka and Algoma. The 
gold medal was won by Scarboro. 

In 1886 there were eighteen entries, comprising farms in 
the counties of Middlesex, Oxford, Kent, Brant, Simcoe, 
Wellington, York, Norfolk, Renfrew, Carleton, Frontenac, 
Victoria, Huron, Halton, and Bruce. 

These included all the gold medal farms of previous years, 
nearly all the silver medallists, and a number of the bronze 
medallists. Here again the same township and the same farm 
won the sweepstakes prize. 

This farm is situated in concession 5, lot 30, township of 
Scarboro. It was deeded by Mrs. James Fenwick to Joshua 
L'Amaroux, on January 16th, 1832, for £75. On February 17th, 
1838, it was sold to Robert Rennie for £175, and on June 5th, 
1867, it was deeded to Simpson Rennie, its present owner. 

Probably no better history could be given of this farm than 
that to be found in the " Reports of the Council of the Agri- 
culture and Arts Association of Ontario " for the years 1883 
and 1886, as follows : 

"The casual observer, in passing Kelvin Grove, owned by 
Mr. Simpson Rennie, township of Scarboro, might easily be 
oblivious of the fact that on his right and left lay the different 
compartments of a farm that for some years hence shall be 
regarded as the most famous in Ontario, and which will live 
in the story of Canadian agriculture in all time. This farm, 
consisting of about one hundred acres, lies principally in the 
5th concession of Scarboro, extending from side-road to side- 
road, with twenty- two and a half acres across the highway. 
. The country around it is plain and level. There 
is almost a total absence of the romantic in nature, either on 
the farm or the surroundings, as the running brook, the tree- 
clad hill, or the shady dell, with its witchery of attractions. 
The buildings are plain, and so are the fences. There is no 
attempt at display, and yet there is a perfection of neatness 

94 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

about everything belonging to the place, and everything that 
is done upon it, such as we never saw at any other farm. 

"When the farming that is usually done at our Agricultural 
Colleges equals that of Kelvin Grove, either in its essence or 
upon its surface, then shall students crowd in from all quarters 
to get lessons in this first and noblest of the sciences. . . . 
The farm could not be better divided into fields. . . . No 
better site could have been chosen for the buildings, and the 
bush is in the most convenient location. The plan of the 
yards and the site of the orchard could not be improved upon, 
so that in all these particulars we assign to Kelvin Grove the 
full number of marks. The orchard, comprising two and a half 
acres, is in a flourishing condition, and is surrounded by one of 
the most perfect Norway spruce hedges to be found anywhere. 
It resembles a high fortification, sloping inwards toward the 
top, so dense that the blasts of winter cannot penetrate it, and 
so high that the winds which scale it blow above the tops of 
the trees within. No limb in all its length protrudes beyond 
another, and although but some twelve years planted, it is now 
more than twelve feet. high. . . . The soil of this farm, a 
clay loam, blackish in its texture, and resting on a not over 
retentive sub-soil of clay, is most thoroughly underdrained. 

"The obstacles of cultivation were absolutely lacking. They 
had all been removed, not a stick or stone was to be seen dis- 
figuring the garden-like surface of this farm, nor is there a 
prong of a stump on the place to jar the plough, or disturb 
the equilibrium of the ploughman. The cultivation was simply 
perfect, if perfection is attainable in this line. . . . 

" The system of husbandry is mixed, though in a modified 
form. . . . 

"The fences were the neatest of the kind that we have ever 
seen, without any exception. They consist mainly of the 
straight rail, post, stake and wire ; but the rails are all fitted at 
the ends, and perfectly level on the top and even with the 
posts, and the stakes were sawn. The posts are sunk four feet 
in the ground. You might look along the top of a line of this 
fence the full extent of the length and breadth of the farm. 

On the Farm. 95 

without detecting the slightest variation in the construc- 
tion. . . . 

"The singular neatness about every detail of this farm was 
one of its unique features ; even in the most trifling details it 
is everywhere manifest. . . . 

''A word to our young men before we leave the description 
of this sweepstakes farm. Kelvin Grove has not attained its 
present proud distinction by accident, or as the result of a 
happy combination of circumstances. In several respects 
others of the competing farms had by nature a most decided 
advantage, as in natural beauty, water supply, and in other 
ways. It has been made what it is by the unflinching de- 
termination of its owner. The sweepstakes prize for the best 
farm in Ontario is not the first prize he has won, but the last 
of a long line, each one of which has been the direct result 
of a personal effort." 


The most recent industry, and one which is rapidly develop- 
ing year by year to the advantage of the Scarboro farmer, is 
the production of milk for consumption in Toronto. 

Joseph Gray, of Toronto, is said to have begun the Scarboro 
trade in May, 1877, but on account of the difficulty in keeping 
the milk sweet, his venture did not prove a success. 

On the 1st of May, in the following year, two farmers, James 
Taylor and David W. Thompson, determined to establish dairies 
and handle their own product without the aid of any middle- 
man. They also purchased milk from their neighbors, and so 
successfully did they carry on this business that others have 
devoted their attention to it, and the consequence is that from 
seventeen eight-gallon cans per day taken into the city in 1878, 
there are now upwards of three hundred. The principal con- 
cerns and their daily product are here given : 

Loudon Dairy 27 cans. 

Hillside " 27 " 

Wexford " 27 " 

Elm " 27 " 

Bendale " 25 " 

96 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Lake Shore Dairy ■ ■ 25 cans. 

Highland Creek Dairy 25 

Danforth Dairy 27 

Woburn " , 65 

Agincourt " 25 

Individual dealers, say 50 

Total 350 

As each can contains eight gallons, the daily average quan- 
tity delivered in Toronto is about 2,800 gallons, and as the 
producer is paid at the rate of 85 cents per can, the cash 
returns amount to fully $100,000 per annum to the farmers. 

The development of this industry has not been without a 
very perceptible effect on the methods of farming. Indian 
com, hay, and forage crops of various kinds have largely dis- 
placed grain. Many milk*-cows are kept in stalls during part 
of the summer, and supplied with green food and meal, or 
chopped grain. Farmers who formerly depended mainly on 
wheat and other grains, now rely chiefly, or altogether on dairy 
products, especially milk. 


Bees of many kinds are a necessity in every new settlement, 
where it frequently happens that the united labor of numerous 
hands is required. 

First, in point of time, if not in importance, came the logging- 
bee. Usually, during fall, the portion of forest to be cleared 
would be " underbrushed," or freed from all saplings and loM' 
growths that might interfere with one's freedom of motion from 
place to place, or with the swing of the axe. Winter-time was 
devoted to the real chopping, which consisted not only in felling 
the trees, but in cutting them into lengths of from twelve to 
fifteen or sixteen feet. The most skilful choppers succeeded 
best in making as many trees as possible fall with their tops 

* The ugly and useless word milch is purposely avoided here, as there 
seems to be no more reason for speaking of a milch-cow than of a milch - 
maid, a milch-pail, or a milch-sop. 

On the Farm. 97 

together, thus saving much labor in disposing of the "brush," a 
matter of very considerable importance. 

So far, one man might carry on the work alone, but as soon 
as the logs were cut, co-operation became necessary. Neighbors 
arrived at the " chopping " by invitation, many bringing their 
oxen with them, and the work of forming immense log-heaps 
began. In Scarboro it was customary to divide the " chopping " 
into portions about four rods wide, and forty long, containing an 
acre, for seven or eight men, and a yoke of oxen. Such a 
portion was called a "through." The gangs of men vied with 
each other as to which should first accomplish the task of 
arranging the logs in great piles, so constructed as to burn 
freely, and on the completion of the work festivity and rollick- 
ing mirth followed in due course. 

Sometimes logging-bees were carried on during the early 
hours of summer mornings, chiefly, perhaps, for the sake of the 
oxen, which frequently succumbed to the effects of noon-day 

After a good " burn " the clearance could be rendered fit for 
receiving seed during the fall. 

Raising-bees, or, simply, "raisings," as they were usually 
called, demanded skill of a different order. Gatherings of this 
kind were not of such frequent occurrence as those for logging 
purposes, but from the first they were of great importance. 
The putting up of the simplest log shanty required the united 
labor of several men; barns of this description demanded a 
score or more, and when frame structures took the place of the 
log ones, large numbers of hands were needed to place the 
timbers in position after the framer had done his work. The 
raising of a big barn was a matter of no small consequence. All 
the neighbors for miles around were invited, the women being 
required to prepare and serve the immense quantities of food 
used on such occasions. As time and opportunity served, indi- 
viduals in every section or settlement developed special aptitude 
in handling the huge "sticks" and placing them in position. 
Two good men were always chosen as " captains," and they, 
in turn, selected their assistants from the crowd of willing 

98 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

workers, young and old. The right o£ first choice was settled 
by one of the captains tossing up a piece of bark, or chip, 
marked on one side, the opposing captain guessing white or 
black, wet or dry, before it reached the ground. Naturally 
enough, the men first selected felt the honor, and looked for- 
ward with no small degree of ambition to the time when they 
themselves would be chosen captains and have the choice of 
men, for it must be borne in mind that, in connection with these 
" bees," there was frequently much rivalry among the young 
men, because, in pioneer communities, bone and muscle, added 
to skill in the execution of manual labor, stand deservedly high 
in popular estimation. The captains, having decided by another 
toss which end of the building each gang should tackle, the 
contest (and it was a real one) takes place between the twenty, 
forty or fifty men engaged on each side. All is commotion and 
apparent confusion, but only apparent, for every stick is num- 
bered. The race begins for who shall first get one of the bents 
together, and next as to which side shall have it first up. The 
excitement becomes more intense ; the grog-boss moves about 
discreetly, dispensing his favors ; the men's clothing is now no 
more than trousers and shirt — some have even dispensed with 
boots and stockings, that they may skip freely along the uplifted 
bents and purline plates when the proper time arrives. The 
clamor of gruff voices is deafening, and the stentor-tones of 
" Yoh, heave ! " may be heard easily half a mile away. But 
long before sundown every brace is in its place, the last pin 
has been driven, and all the rafters are in position. If no 
serious accident has happened, the raising may be regarded as 
a success, for it is extremely dangerous work. Bumped heads, 
" barked " shins and jammed fingers may be numerous, but they 
are not taken into account. The frame is up, the job is well 
done, and our side came out ahead. Hurrah ! 

Of late years, when a barn is finished, it has been the custom 
for the farmer to invite the young people of the neighborhood 
to a dance on the spacious floor of the new building. In 1894 
about four hundred young folks gathered in the large barn of 
Mr. J. Mason. In 1892 a similar celebration was held at Mr. 
T. Jackson's. 

On the Farm. 99 



Away in the bush on my stump-studded clearance, 

I fret na' for kintra' nor kin ; 
Here a body's no' fashed* wi' a laird's interference, 

Though a livin's gey fashioust to win. 
I dinna forget the green haunts o' my childhood, 

Loved spots in the lands far away. 
Which memory will cherish while leaves deck the wildwood, 

Or plants woo the freshness o' May. 
But oh, in yon islands how aft did it grieve me 

The poor man's condition to see. 
And sometimes to feel too wi' nane to relieve me : 

Now here I hae little to dree, j 
I hae sax score guid acres, tho' rough to be sure, 

Wi' houses and cattle to fit, 
And though cash binna plenty, I'll no' say I'm poor 

(There's a thing they ca' " trade " gangs for it). 
Wi' chopping and logging and ploughing and reaping 

I've mair aye to do than I can. 
0' a' places else, there's least time here for sleeping. 

It's labor, no' rank, mak's the man. 
To plough my ain land is nae sma' consolation. 

Though the rigs§ binna straight to a line ; 
In ilk molehill o' life there's aye some dislocation, || 

And so there, of course, is in mine. 
'Tis cheery to look on the trees waving yellow 

And think there's nae rent day at han'. 
The taxes at hame are the bane of a fallow, 

Wha hasna a mine at comman'. 
I hear o' rebellion, distress and commotion 

In the lands I hae left far ahin.lT 
And rejoice, there's a soil on this side o' the ocean 

Where the willin' a livin' may win. 
Even kings noo a days are na free frae adverses, 

Where the tide o' convulsion has flown ; 
Here peace is the crown o' a' man's ither mercies, — 

A shanty's mair sure than a throne ! 

* Fashed, annoyed, worried. WDiglocation, The word here is obliterated in 

t Fashions, difficult, troublesome. the MS., and the reader may supply a better 

t Dree, to endure or suffer. one thiin we have .'■ucceeded in doing. 
§ Rigs, ridges (the ploughing). 1i Ahiii, behind. 

100 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


" At night returning, every labor sped, 
He sits him down, the monarch of a shed ; 
Smiles by his cheerful fire, and round surveys 
His children's looks that brighten at the blaze ; 
While his loved partner, boastful of her hoard. 
Displays her cleanly platter on the board." 

— Goldsmith. 

THE "father" and "mother" of Scarboro were 
not left long in the absolute loneliness referred 
to elsewhere. Members of his and her families settled 
around them, but the difficulties of life in the bush 
were not easily overcome. Perhaps the greatest in- 
convenience was the absence of mills. Many a make- 
shift had to be resorted to, of which remembrances 
still linger. A corn-mill (for Indian corn) in common 
use is thus described : A long pole was balanced on a 
forked upright post, well sunk in the ground ; to one 
end of the pole was attached a rope, by which it could 
be worked up and down ; to the other end of the pole 
was affixed an elongated block of wood, which had its 
lower end rounded to fit into a hollow in a large and 
heavy block standing on the ground. In this hollow 
the corn was put, and the pole, by means of the rope, 
was worked up und down so that the descent of the 
upper block crushed the corn in the hollow of the 

Domestic Life. 101 

Eoads not being opened up in the township, and 
the difficulty of travelling the mere ox-trails and 
bridle-paths being great, stores were few. Yet indus- 
tries flourished, and, necessarily, they were such as 
have always been common to new, or secluded com- 
munities in the Old, as well as the New World. 

Straw-working was carried on to a considerable 
extent, for men and women wanted light covering for 
their heads, and the bees required hives. The early 
crops of cereals were but large enough to little more 
than supply the necessities of the farmers them- 
selves, and much of the straw was converted into 
hats. Many a wet day and spare hour were usefully 
filled by the young folk in preparing and plaiting the 
straw for head-wear. Eye, wheat and oat straw were 
all used for, the purpose, but rye was the favorite. 
The hats being sewed, they were bleached by exposure 
to the fumes of sulphur in a close box. The best rye 
hats sold for four York-shillings (fifty cents), those of 
wheat straw for half that price, and a large number 
were sent to market. 

The women of Scarboro were also famous spinners. 
Four skeins of fourteen knots each was considered a 
good day's work, but some of the maidens, in their 
desire to outdo their rivals, reached as high as eight, 
and produced that number day after day. The latter 
skeins appear to have been of the size containing eight 
knots, and this would give them a supremacy of eight 
knots in the day's work. 

This, of course, was with the large wheel. But 
the small wheel had its honors, too, and one loves to 
imagine the bright, healthy girl of those early days as 
she lilted her happy song while she drew the fine 

102 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

thread, perhaps to be woven into her bridal outfit, 
from the humming wheel, and gaily smiling to herself 
as the tones of her lover's voice fell upon her ear from 
the distant field or the full barn, as he pursued his 
day's employment. 

Nor can we forget the mother, full of cares and pro- 
jects for the welfare of her dear ones, whose thoughts 
would run in a quieter strain, yet who sang to her 
toddling bairns, or to the babe in the cradle, the words 
of some homely old ditty. 

As far as can be ascertained, David Thomson had 
the first flock of sheep in his section of the township, 
but he had great difficulty in keeping his lambs from 
the wolf, that would attack the flock even in daylight. 

Before the introduction of carding mills, all work in 
preparing wool for cloth was done by hand. Picking, 
dyeing, carding, spinning, and weaving were part of 
the thrifty housewife's work. Nor were her colors ani- 
line dyes either ; she procured the plants that grew 
around. For brown she took butternut ; for yellow, 
onion skins or wax-wood, and golden-rod ; sumach 
came in for her purpose also, and a dozen other color- 
sources that the Indian had found out long before. 

When carding mills were introduced, wool was 
taken to the mill to be made into rolls, then spun, 
dyed and woven at home. Here, too, the good wife 
made her husband's clothing as well as her own and 
her children's. How she did so much in a day of 
twenty-four hours only is a present-day puzzle. It is 
true, neither housekeeping nor cooking in those days 
was very elaborate. There were no drawing-rooms — 
the open-hearthed, hospitable kitchen, with its blazing 
fire, served all purposes. 

Domestic Life. 103 

Stoves of any kind did not find their way to 
Scarboro for a good many years. An amusing story 
is still told of one of the old settlers, evidently an 
oddity, who has left behind him the legend of a fire 
called the "koonet," or " coonet," or, as was pro- 
bably the correct word, the " Vankoughnet " fire. 
Mr. Vankoughnet's idea of comfort and convenience 
savored of the rough plenty of the time, and is wholly 
inapplicable to a date when wood is worth six dollars 
a cord. Near the middle of his one-roomed house he 
constructed a fire-bed by digging a shallow pit about 
six inches deep and three or four feet across, the edges 
of which were flanked with stones set in clay mortar. 
He made a door on each side of his cabin, through 
which he drew the logs with an ox. Having taken in 
sufficient fuel for the night he closed his doors, rolled 
the logs at full length across the fire-pit, and sat down 
to read, to meditate, or perhaps chat with a friendly 

But the ordinary settler's fire, large as it was, was 
not on so liberal a scale. The place which the stove 
now holds in the farm kitchen was well filled in past 
days by the bake-kettle and Dutch oven, in which both 
bread and meat could be nicely prepared for, table. 
Indeed, for the baking of bread the iron kettle, covered 
by a lid, and buried beneath the live coals, is said to 
have surpassed the stove appliances of to-day. 

Various other methods of preparing food were re- 
sorted to in the kitchen before the advent of stoves. 
Meat was sometimes hung to roast, suspended on a 
hook before the fire, or, as the Indian used to carry 
out the same idea, by holding the meat on a forked 
stick close to the red-hot coals on the hearth. Nor 

104 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

were the resources of the housewife exhausted by these 
methods. Did she wish to prepare bacon or pancakes ? 
Then she used the long-handled frying-pan, and it was 
quite a feat for the cook to turn the pancake by a 
toss without letting it fall into the fire. Her camp- 
kettle or pot, hung upon the "crane," could be swung 
ofi, or over, the fire as required. 

The clay, or brick oven was also an adjunct of the 
kitchen, that was considered indispensable, and was 
used for the various purposes which the more pre- 
tentious arrangement serves to-day ; and what batches 
of bread — salt-rising or hop-yeast — it would hold! 
And what an array of saleratus-raised cakes ! And as 
for pies ! well, ask grandfather about them. 

The first stoves — all for burning wood, of course, — 
great generous things that took half a cordwood stick 
at once, were the Burr, the King, the ever- famous 
Davy Crockett, and the Lion Air-tight. In the early 
part of the century a single stove called Dr. Nott's 
was actually imported from England, as well as 
anthracite or " Kilkenny " coal for its fuel ! 

Soap-making was another domestic economy every 
housewife practised. Hard-soap, soft-soap, lye and 
leach-barrel, what a history is hidden in the world-old 
word soap ! The men were economical, too, and care- 
fully burning their fallow, produced from the clean 
hardwood ashes a valuable article of commerce — pot- 
ash. How good the Grod of nature is to His creatures 
we never know, until we are deprived of outside assist- 
ance. No stores ! then where did our ancestors get 
their rope and string, harness for their oxen, and cord- 
age for all other purposes ? 

Long before the white man's appearance, the Indian 

Domestic Life. 105 

had found out the toughness of the young bark of the 
moose-wood, and used it for loose handles to his bas- 
kets ; this the earliest settlers of' Scarboro also used. 
The bark of the elm, and of the bass-wood (used 
for the same purpose in Eussia), made strong ropes 
and was in great demand. Elm bark, too, was much 
used for chair-bottoms, and some of these primitive 
seats are still kept as relics in the township. For 
this purpose black-ash was, however, preferred, because 
it did not stretch. The wood was split into slabs about 
an inch and a half in thickness, and then pounded with 
a mallet, when it could be readily split into thin rib- 
bons and woven, basket-fashion, into the chair-bottoms. 
It is hardly likely that rush-bottomed chairs would be 
unknown, as they were the common chairs of the Old 
World, and every countryman knew how to prepare 
the rushes. For ropes, also, flax was sparsely grown ; 
it was used, besides, for grain-bags and coarse ticking, 
at an early date. Some years ago a flax mill was built 
by the Milnes .on the Eiver Eouge, but did not prove 
financially successful, because after the civil war in 
the United States, cotton became so cheap as to 
make flax- working unprofitable. 

There are few places where the sweets that our 
nature craves are not to be found, and Canada has 
her splendid maple trees for a supply. Sugar-making 
was largely carried on in Scarboro for many years. 
Happy memories of those by-gone times still linger 
among the older people. They had their " sugaring- 
off" and "taffy-pulls," when the young people met 
for an evening's enjoyment, including the invariable 
dance which followed. 

In the sugar-bush would be found the large trough, 

106 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

made from a section of a pine-tree dug out with an 
axe. It was big enough to hold several barrels of sap 
as it was collected from the trees. There, also, were 
large kettles, or caldrons, in which the sap was boiled 
down, and the "camp," in which was stored the 
necessary utensils used in the process; Sugar, syrup, 
and vinegar, in sufficient quantities for family use, 
were made by each household. Corn-cakes and buck- 
wheat pancakes, with maple syrup, was, and remains, 
a favorite Canadian dish. 

Nor were sugaring frolics the only fun that our fore- 
fathers indulged in. Logging, husking and paring 
bees, and barn-raisings were seasons of great enjoy- 
ment as well as of industry. Logging-bees and rais- 
ings have already been referred to at length in the 
chapter, " On the Farm." 

Husking-bees employed the united industry of both 
sexes, and were a favorite source of amusement with the 
early settlers. The farmer having gathered his crop 
of Lidian corn into his threshing floor, or upon the 
open field, invited the young people to husk it; or, 
rather to unhusk it, and the merriment on such occa- 
sions was most hilarious ; but, alas ! the monster and 
insatiate silo has come with its friend the cutting-box, 
and the happy husking -days have gone never to 
return ! 

When the orchards of the first settlers began to bear, 
and the beautiful fruit was garnered, all the apples that 
were not sold, or would not keep through the long 
winter, were pared, cut into eighths, strung on cords 
and hung up to the kitchen ceiling to dry, with a 
view to future pies. The young folk gathered in the 
farmer's ample kitchen and took the work in hand. 

Domestic Life. 107 

Generally a certain quantity was made the task of 
the evening, and after this was done a supper was 
served and dancing followed. 

Every country community in the new, as well as 
in the old lands had its violinist. Among Scarboro's 
early sons who swung the bow gracefully were, 
notably, "Fiddler Will," "Fiddler Andrew" and 
" Fiddler Dick," and one of these worthies having 
been given a comfortable place, reels, strathspeys, 
hornpipes, and country dances begun, and merriment 
reigned supreme. 

" New times, new manners," so to-day many of 
the old amusements have fallen into disuse, and 
new ones have come in. One anniversary, the royal 
birthday, remains, however, and is always a season 
of recreation. On this day the loyal militia of Scar- 
boro used to meet for annual drill, and it was called 
"training day." Since then George IV. and William 
IV. have reigned for short periods, and each birthday 
has been right royally celebrated. 

For the last fifty-nine years all loyal subjects have 
kept the 24th of May, the birthday of our present 
beloved sovereign, Her Majesty Queen Victoria. For 
twenty-eight years another occasion of public rejoicing 
and recreation has been added to our national holi- 
days in Canada, namely, Dominion Day, the 1st of 
July. On this day picnics, socials, or social tea- 
parties, lawn parties, or excursions by rail or steam- 
boat, are the usual forms of pleasure. Sunday 
Schools avail themselves freely of the opportunities 
for a little outing to some point, generally on the 
lake shore, which the simple form of the picnic 
affords. Gates's Grove in early times, and at present 

108 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Yictoria Park and many other convenient points are 
selected for these gatherings. 

The story of domestic and social life in Scarboro 
would be incomplete without some reference to its 
mental food. Books, though few, by reason of many 
causes, were not entirely absent, even in the humblest 
families of early Scarboro. Beyond the cherished 
Bible and prayer-book, or, as in the case of the Pres- 
byterian Church, the paraphrases of the Psalms of 
David, other highly- valued volumes were to be found : 
"Baxter's Saints' Eest," "The Imitation of Christ," 
"Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress," with perhaps also an 
odd copy of " Defoe's Plague of London," or his 
" Eobinson Crusoe." Among the remains of the old 
Thomson library we find such works as " Spectacle de 
la Nature, or Nature Delineated," an excellent work 
preparatory to the fuller study of natural history, 
translated from the French by Dr. Bellamy and others 
in 1743. On the shelves were also " Pinnock's Cate- 
chism of Mental Philosophy," and his " Catechism 
of the History of Grreece." With these were "The 
Complete English Farmer," " Mechanickal Dialing," 
" The Marrow of Modern Divinity," as well as several 
volumes of Sermons, and works on the Shorter Cate- 

In the old Walton library we find "The Complete 
Body of Practical Divinity," by John Gill, 1796, 
and on the Brownlie bookshelves were " Bbenezer 
Erskine's Works," "Matthew Henry's Commentary," 
and quite a large number of other works of value. 

Of newspapers read in the township in very early 
times, people in the Old Country furnished their 
friends in the New with such as they could afford, but 

Domestic Life. 109 

it must be remembered that this was before the daily 
press possibihties were dreamt of. There were also 
The Colonial Advocate, first issued in Toronto in 
1824 ; The Courier, The Mercury, The Tipper Canada 
Gazette, the first newspapers pubHshed in the Pro- 
vince, and undoubtedly others, for the period between 
1824 and 1834 was one of great activity in the public 
press. The Montreal Witness has been read in Scar- 
boro from its first issue in 1844 or 1845. 

The Scarboro and Highland Creek Public Libraries 
are fully described in another chapter, but special 
reference may be made here to the books now sup- 
plied tq Sunday School scholars, such books being 
immensely superior to the namby-pamby stuff that 
used to be doled out to us. 

The house furnishings of to-day correspond with 
the rest of the internal fittings. The dinner-horn 
or conch-shell ,of old time has given place to the 
more melodious bell on the kitchen roof, and the 
" spread " for a meal nowadays is in striking con- 
trast with the humbler fare that constituted one in 
the early days. City folk are prone to regard the 
farmer's table as one that is set out, substantially it 
may be, but coarsely and uninvitingly. The sight of 
a Scarboro menu would speedily dispel this notion, in 
view of the snowy linen, the excellence and variety of 
the dishes, and the tasteful manner of serving. 

It is claimed for the wives and daughters of this 
township, that if they could only enter into competi- 
tion with outsiders as the husbands and fathers have 
done in their lines, Scarboro would bear the palm in 
all that pertains to housekeeping, as it confessedly 
does already in so many other departments, industrial 
as well as social. 

110 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

How different, not only in appearance, but also in 
comfort and convenience of its internal arrangements, 
is the Scarboro farm-house of to-day from that which 
sheltered our grandfathers and grandmothers in the 
beginning of the century. 

Other pages in this history give a description of 
the material used in, and method of constructing, the 
old-time farm-house. 

The interior of early houses comprised only one 
room, with the clay and stone-built fire-place — or, as 
at first, clay and wood — at the one end, and beds at the 
other, while, to economize room, the children's bed 
was pushed underneath the larger one. The bunk 
was used as a seat by day and a bed at night. At 
one side of the fire-place, and at an angle of 60 degrees, 
there was a narrow staircase, or a ladder, leadirig to 
the garret, which in some cases had to be used as a 
sleeping apartment. The recess formed by the angle 
of the stairs and the outer wall of the fire-place, was 
known as the " pot-hole." The furniture of the room 
consisted of beds, table, chairs and cupboard, all home- 
made. Nails, or pins, driven into the wall held the 
various pans, etc., used in kitchen. The fire-place, in 
the earliest times, supplied the only light. Next was 
introduced the saucer with oil, or melted tallow, in 
which was placed a cotton wick. The days of the 
tallow candle followed, and these in turn were suc- 
ceeded by the kerosene lamp. The modern farm- 
house is designed in all its arrangements with a view 
to comfort and convenience. There are parlor, pri- 
vate sitting-room, dining-room, and from three to five 
bedrooms with clothes-room off each, wide halls, 
and, in some instances, hoists from the cellar to the 

Domestic Life. 


dining-room. Many houses are heated by means of 
coal furnaces, and where there is no furnace, coai 
stoves are used. The large kitchen is always con- 
venient to the dining-room ; a supply of soft-water is 
kept in underground cisterns, the pump being not 
unfrequently placed in a corner of the kitchen, while 
the hard-water pump is equally handy. 

In the modern house the sleeping apartments are 
chiefly upstairs, the aim being to have only one on 
the ground floor, which is used in case of sickness. 
A hanging-lamp in each supplies light in dining-room 
and parlor, hand-lamps being used in bedrooms. In 
most houses of to-day all the rooms are carpeted, with 
the exception of the kitchen, which is in some in- 
stances covered with oilcloth or linoleum. Musical 
instruments are found in nearly every house, and in 
many a Scarboro home may be heard the sweet strains 
of organ or piano produced by no unskilful fingers. 

112 History of the Township of Scarboro. 




"It is one thing to see your road, another to cut it." — George Eliot. 
" Who can answer where any road leads to ? " — Lytton. 

IT is not unusual to find that the first roads in lake- 
shore (or first opened) townships followed tortuous 
Indian trails, as these always led along routes present- 
ing fewest difficulties and most advantages. In many 
instances the surveyors' work is regardless of devia- 
tions, but it is probable that the Kingston, Danforth 
and other old roads in this township were laid out on 
the lines pursued by ancient paths. 

Danforth Road. — Governor Simcoe being duly im- 
pressed with the value of good roads, contemplated 
the opening of one from* Burlington Bay to Kingston, 
to be known as Dundas Street (in honor of Henry 
Dundas, Lord Melville, at that time Secretary of State 
for the Colonies), a name retained by that portion of 
the road extending westwards from Toronto. 

" The road eastwards towards Kingston was to be 
constructed in course of time by the settlers. Mean- 
while the communication with Montreal was to be 
made by water. ... In 1799, it is recorded that 
the road from York to the Bay of Quinte was ' con- 
tracted out by Government to Mr. Danforth,* to be 
cut and completed, forty feet wide, by the first of 

* His name is said to have been in full, Asa Danforth. 

Roads. 113 

July next.* Mr. Danforth had already made forty 
miles of excellent road.' The Gazette of December 
14th, 1799, says : ' The road from York to the Mid- 
land District is completed as far as the township of 
Hope, about sixty miles, so that sleighs, waggons, etc., 
may travel it with safety.' "f 

During the war of 1812 military stores are said to 
have been landed at the mouth of Highland Creek, and 
carried over the Danforth and Old Ridge Eoads to 
York, on their way to Penetanguishene. A large 
anchor that had been taken by this route and the Old 
Ridge Road was lost in the Nottawasaga River, by the 
wreck of the raft on which it was carried. (See p. 52.) 

For many years a toll-gate stood on the Danforth 
Road, on lot 31, concession B. 

It was evidently in following this as a mere trail from 
the lake-shore that David Thomson reached the spot 
he chose as his home in 1796. 

Portions of the Danforth Road are closed to allow 
of some lots being squared. 

Kingston Boad. — This road connecting Kingston 
and York, was first known as Kingston Street. It 
was made in 1800, but for many years was little better 
than a wide path through the woods, there having been 
scarcely any attempt to make it what we now call a 
good road, at all seasons. An old resident describes 
it as he remembers it sixty years ago, when its course 
was nearer the lake than it is at present. He says : 
" Passing through this section from east to west, it ran 

* A correspondent says the contract price was $100 per mile, and Dan- 
forth was to run the road to suit himself. 

t From a very excellent summary of the history of York, by Dr. Wm. 
CanniflF, in Miles' "Historical Atlas of the County." Toronto, 1878. 

114) History of the Township of Scarboro. 

between Old St. Margaret's Church and the present 
parsonage, entering the north corner of lot 13, conces- 
sion D. Near this point was the first (Elliot) hotel 
after passing Highland Creek. On the opposite side 
of the road was a log-house occupied by a shoemaker 
named Small. Crossing lot 14 near the house of 
J. Richardson, M.P.P., it ran into lot 15 about four 
rods north of the present road. A log school-house 
stood here, in which Miss Closson taught. About 
twenty rods west of the Grand Trunk Railway cross- 
ing, it crossed the present road, and began the ascent 
of Scarboro Heights, keeping near the brow of the hill, 
and passing the old home of J. Humphrey to lot 16, 
the Annis homestead, on which stood a hotel kept by 
John Muir. This place was known as the William 
Wallace Inn, the front of which was decorated with 
what was, no doubt (?) a striking oil-painted portrait of 
the redoubtable warrior himself Passing south of the 
Methodist cemetery it crossed ' Dolway's Swale ' over 
a log bridge to lot 17, concession C, keeping close to 
the top of the hill to the centre of lot 18. Near this 
it is said that a still earlier road ran down to the flats,* 
and that the first stage coaches between York and 
Kingston used this branch for some years. 

The route of the main road over lot 19 is still marked 
by a row of pine-trees on the farm of Levi Annis 
on the south side of which stood the old Burton home- 
stead, and farther on the frame hotel kept by Mr. 
Gates. It crossed the present road to the north side 
near Bambridge's blacksmith shop to lot 21, the old 
Stobo farm, where there was a toll-gate, after which it 

• J. G. Cornell writes that "before this, the road ran down the hill to 
the iiats on lots 17 and 18, concession O." 

Roads. 115 

ran about thirty rods north of the present road past 
the homes of John Stobo, Stephen Washington, John 
Thorns and Stephen Pherrill to Toronto." 

In 1817, the route of Kingston Street was changed 
by being made to take a course generally somewhat 
farther to the north, where more favorable grades 
were obtainable, the work being done by Joseph Secor 
for $11,000 under the superintendence of Commis- 
sioners Peter Secor, Dan Knowles, Arch. Glendin- 
ning and Wm. Helliwell. The owners of the land 
through which the new road ran received no compen- 
sation beyond getting the old road allowance. At 
one time the road was planked from Norway to High- 
land Creek. 

Toll-gates were placed on it about 1839. In 1860 
the road was taken over by James Beatty. 

MarJcham PlanJc Road. — The Markham and Scar- 
boro Plank Road Co. was incorporated under an Act 
of the Canadian Parliament in 1852, the President 
being Joseph Tomlinson, and the Treasurer, John 

Planking was laid down from the Kingston Road to 
StoufFville. Shares were issued at £6 5s. each. This 
road was considerably frequented while it remained in 
good repair, but to keep it in this condition cost more 
than was warranted by the returns. 

Toll-gates were placed at Scarboro village and at 
the corner of the second concession. 

An informant states ^that this road " was opened as 
far south as Mr. Purvis's, lot 18, concession 2, in 1830. 
From there it struck across lots to James Chester's, in 
concession D." 

116 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Old Ridge Road. — Even the memory of this old 
highway is almost forgotten, as it has long since been 
enclosed in the various lots through w^hich it passed, 
on the watershed between the two main branches of 
Highland Creek. Following this course, it extended 
in a general southerly and south-easterly direction, 
until a little south of Bendale it met the Danforth 
Road, both forming, no doubt, part of the original 
Indian trail, one branch of which extended to Toronto, 
while the other led to Lake Simcoe by the Holland 

It is referred to as " The first road, running in a 
south-easterly direction and crossing concession 3, in 
lots 26 and 27 ; concession 2, in lots 24 and 25, until 
it struck the Danforth Road." 

First Markham Road. — The oldest road to Mark- 
ham extended from the Old Ridge Road at a point 
near the south end of lot 24, concession 2, until by a 
somewhat devious course it reached concession 4, after 
which it followed a tolerably straight line between lots 
17 and 18, where it entered the township of Markham. 

J. C. Cornell states that " a road from the present 
site of Scarboro post-office, ran in an almost straight 
line to St. Andrew's Church." 

Other particulars relating to roads will be found 
in the following chapter. 


1. J. P. Wheler. 2. Peter Sfecor. 3. J. Crawford. i. J. Torrance. 
6. Wm. Clark, sen. 6. J. Moyle. 

Councils and Councillors. 117 


" Order is heaven's first law ; and this oonfest, 
Some are, and must be, greater than the rest.'' 


THE history of municipal institutions in Ontario, 
however interesting, would be out of place 
here. Suffice it to state, broadly, that we have suc- 
ceeded in elaborating what is perhaps the most perfect 
system of local self-government to be found in any 
country at the present day. If we except those offices 
in the gift of the Dominion and Provincial Govern- 
ments, and which are usually bestowed as political 
favors, there is not a position from that of pound- 
keeper or pathmaster to that of member of the Legis- 
lature or of Parliament, beyond the attainment of any 
ambitious and even moderately intelligent man ; our 
school section, township and county boards affording 
admirable means for the training of those who are 
desirous of becoming public servants. 

When the fii'st parliament met at Newark in 1792, 
the organized portion of Upper Canada was laid out 
in immense districts, the areas of which became less 
and less as population increased. The limits of these 
districts were first shown in Chewitt's map, prepared 
in 1795, and, with more details, in that of D. W. Smith, 
Acting Surveyor-General, in 1798.* At this time the 

* A beautiful copy of this map accompanies the report, for 1891, of Dr. 
Douglas Brymner, Dominion Archivist. 

118 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Home District, of which Scarboro formed a part, ex- 
tended from the head of the Bay of Quint'e, on the 
east, to the present County of Perth, on the west. 
All to the east of York was included in the counties 
of Durham and Northumberland, and while all to the 
west was called the West Riding, what now constitutes 
York and Ontario formed the East Riding of York. 

When the first Home District Council met in Toronto 
on the 8th of February, 1842,* the boundaries of the 
district were greatly restricted. The following list of 
townships then included will enable anyone to trace 
the limits of the territory on a map : Adjala, Albion, 
Brock, Caledon, Chinguacousy, Essa, Etobicoke, Geor- 
gina, Gwillimbury (East, West and North), Innisfil, 
King, Mara and Rama, Markham, Mulmur and 
Tossorontio, Medonte and Flos, Orillia (North and 
South), Oro, Pickering, Reach, Scarboro, Tecumseth, 
Thorah, Tiny and Tay, Toronto, Toronto Gore, 
Uxbridge and Scott, Vaughan, Vespra, Whitby, 
Whitchurch, and York. 

At this time there were no township councils, and 
all municipal business was transacted through the Dis- 
trict Council, in which each township was represented 
by one or two members, according to population, the 
number of members in the Home District Council 
being fifty-one ; but in 1849 the number of townships 
in the district had fallen from forty to twenty-four, and 
the councillors had decreased from fifty-one to forty. 

In the records of the Home District Municipal 

* The division of the Province into districts, and the representation of 
each township in the District Council, was the beginning of municipal 
government in Upper Canada. The scheme was formulated by Lord 

Councils and Councillors. 119 

Council (1842 to 1849), we find that Wm. Clark and 
John Torrance represented Scarboro in 1842 and 1843. 
In 1844, the councillors were Messrs. Torrance and 
Secor; in 1845, '46 and '47, Messrs. Secor and 
Paterson; in 1848 and '49, Messrs. Secor and A. 

During this period most of the municipal legislation 
affecting Scarboro related to schools, and that of but 
little importance. 

From the minutes we find that in August, 1845, on 
the petition of James Jones to the Home District 
Council, a road was opened between lots 28 and 29 
" from the Dunford* Road to the Plank Road," and 
on the 29th June, 1848, " Thos. Rogers, Joseph Beek 
and others " petitioned " that a road be established 
between B and C broken front- in the township of 
Scarboro," but no action seems to have been taken 
pursuant to this request ; and on the same day A. H. 
McLean prayed "that the old line of road between 18 
and .19 be abandoned, and side-line first concession be 
adopted," with a similar result. 

At this meeting, too, John Skelton asked payment 
" for some bridge alleged to have been built by him 
about twenty -three years ago " — to use the language of 
the Committee on Roads and Bridges — but "your 
committee do not recommend the prayer of the peti- 
tion." This must have proved aggravating to Mr. 
Skelton, as it was not a recommendation of his prayer 
he asked for, but a recommendation of payment. 

At the first half-yearly meeting of the Home District 
Council in 1849, a by-law was passed appropriating 

* Evidently meant for Danforth. 

120 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

the sum of £5,000 for the improvement of roads and 
bridges. Of this amount £203 came to Scarboro, " the 
sum of £30 to be expended in building a bridge over 
the Highland Creek, at Arvinston's saw-mill, on the 
Markham Road, and in draining and otherwise improve 
ing the same road northward to Mape's Inn ; and that 
Peter Secor, Edward Cornell and James Purvis be 

" The sum of £173 to be expended by John 
McCreight, Jordan Post, William Bi'own, Daniel 
Knowles, Wm. Helliwell, Lewis Secor, Joshua Sisley, 
James Lawrie, Edward Cornell, James Purvis, John 
P. Wheler, James A. Thomson, John Elliot, John 
Fitzgibbon, Joseph Smith, William Paterson, William 
Clark, sen., Joseph Pilkey, Robert Buchanan, Chris. 
Thomson, John Tingle, and William Devenish, together 
with the two councillors of the township, upon such 
roads and bridges as they, or a majority of them, may 
deem expedient." 

The first local municipal records relate to a town 
meeting held on the 3rd of January, 1848, at Thomas 
Dowswell's Inn, J. P. Wheler in the chair, when 
Arch. Glendinning was elected councillor, and Wm. 
Chamberlain, clerk, assessor and collector. It has 
already been mentioned that Mr. Glendinning was a 
councillor for that year, but this record enables us to 
understand the simple methods of election, and brings 
out that while a councillor was chosen to hold office 
for two years, only one councillor was elected each 

The first township council met at Dowswell's tavern, 
21st of January, 1850. It consisted of Peter Secor, 
Reeve ; J. P. Wheler, Deputy Reeve ; Wm. Helliwell, 

Councils and Councillors. 121 

Christopher Thomson and Edward Cornell, all of whom 
took the oath of qualification before Wm. Clark, J. P., 
a former representative in the Home District Council. 

A list of the members that have composed succeed- 
ing councils will be found appended, but reference 
should here be made to the fact that John Crawford, 
who served as Deputy Reeve from 1859 until 1865, 
has continued most worthily to fill the position of 
township clerk from 1865 to the present time. 

The township records go no farther back than 1848, 
when a declaration was made and signed by Joseph 

Pilkey, Isaac C. , George Snider, Adam Walton, 

Wm. Kennedy, Wm. Fawcett, sen., Wm. Mason, Thos. 
Kennedy, Wedley Robinson, Daniel Kennedy, George 
Galway, John Palmer, John Warren, Isaac Christie, 
Timothy Devenish, John Richardson, Alex. Wilson, 
Geo. Stephenson, Abraham Stoner, Wm. Young, Wm. 
Richardson, Wm. Westney, Wm. Anthony, Jas. Law, 
Isaac Stoner, Thos. Adams, Thos. Booth, King Parkes, 
James Peters, Wm. Chamberlain, Marshal Macklin, 
Thomas Adams, jun., Isaac Secor, Wm. A. Thomson, 
Jas. A. Thomson, James Johnson, John Sherburn, 
Jas. Spring, Thomas Brown, Jas. Wilson, John Law, 
Wm. Nelson, Robert Jackson, Andrew Potter, Thos. 

In 1850 district councils were abolished, and county 
councils introduced, and the words Reeve and Deputy 
Reeve were used to designate the chairman and vice- 
chairman of the township council. Up to 1867 the 
councillors chose their own reeves, but since that time 
these officers have been elected at the polls. 

122 History of the Township of Scarboro. 
















Peter Secor . . . 

J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

.John Torrance 

J. P. Wheler. 

.J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

Thos. Brown . . 

Chris. Thomson. 

G. Stephenson . 

J. P. Wheler. 

Deputy Reeve. 



Wm. Helliwell . 
Chris. Thomson 
Ed. Cornell .... 

Chris. Thomson 
Jas. Purvis .... 
Wm. Helliwell . 

Wm. Clark. 

Wm. Clark. 

Wm. Clark. 

Wm. Clark. 

Wm. Clark. 

John Crawford . . 

John Heron 

Geo. Stephenson 
Thos. Dows«ell . 

Isaac Ashbridge . 

Jos. Seeor 

Wm. Clark .... 

Geo. Stephenson. 
Wm. H. Norris . 
Thos. Kennedy . . 

Jos. H. Smith . . . 

Jordan Post 

Jas. Humphrey. . 

Jos. H. Smith . . . 

Jordan Post 

John Crawford . . 

Thos. Brown . . . . 
Geo. Stephenson. 
John Crawford . , 

Thos. Brown . . , 
Wm. Helliwell . . 
Wm. H. Norris , 

Isaac Ashbridge , 
Wm. Helliwell . . 
Edwin Snider . . , 


Jos. H. Smith. 
Jos. H. Smith. 
Jos. H. Smith. 
Jos. H. Smith. 
Wm. Helliwell. 
James Moyle . 
James Moyle. . 
James Moyle . . 
James Moyle , . 
James Moyle. . 


W. Chamberlain. 
Stephen Closson. 
Stephen Closson. 
Stephen Closson. 
Stephen Closson. 
James Moyle. 
James Moyle. 
James Moyle. 
James Moyle. 
James Moyle. 

Councils and Councillors. 



Deputy Reeve 





L P. Wheler 

John Crawford . . - 

Jas. Palmer 

Wm. Helliwell . . . 
Edwin Snider 

James Moyle . . 

James Moyle. 


J. P. Wheler 

John Crawford . . - 

Jas. Palmer . . . 
Daniel Knowles . . 
Edwin Snider 

James Moyle . . 

James Moyle. 


J. P. Wheler 

John Crawford . . - 

Thos. Brown .... 
Wm. Helliwell . . . 
Edwin Snider 

James Moyle . . 

James Moyle. 


.L P. Wheler 

John Crawford . . -! 

Thos. Hrown 

Di G. Stephenson . 
Edwin Snider .... 

James Moyle. . 

James Moyle. 


.L P. Wheler 

John Crawford . . -j 

Thos. Brown .... 
D. G. Stephenson. 
Wm. Clark 

James Moyle . . 

James Moyle. 


D. G. Stephenson . . 

Geo. Chester J. 

John Taylor 

J. P. Wheler .... 
Wm. Clark 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


Thos. Brown 

Geo. Chester . . . . - 

D. G. Stephenson. 
Thos. Kennedy. . . 
Thos. Whiteside.. 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


Geo. Chester 

D. G. Stephenson. J 

James McCowan . . 
Thos. Whiteside . . 
John Wilson 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


Geo. Chester 

D. G. Stephenson. - 

James McCowan , . 
Thos. Whiteside.. 
John S. Palmer. . . 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


Geo. Chester 

D. G. Stephenson, j 

James McCowan . . 

Simon Miller 

M. Macklin 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


Geo. Chester 

D. G. Stephenson. - 

James McCowan. . 
Simon Miller .... 
John S. Palmer . . 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


.J. P. Wheler 

D. 6. Stephenson.- 

James McCowan . 
Simon Miller .... 
John S. I'almer . . 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


J. P. Wheler 

D. G. Stephenson. -j 

James McCowan . . 
Simon Miller . . . 
Jas. Humphrey . . 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


J. P. Wheler 

D. 6. Stephenson, j 

Simon Miller .... 
James McCowan. . 
Jeremiah Annis . . 

John Crawford 

John Crawford. 


History of the Township of Scarboro. 










J. P. Wheler. 

J. P. Wheler. 

Geo. Chester . 

D. G. Stephenson 

D. G. Stephenson < 

D. G. Stephenson 

Depcty Reeve. 

Simon Miller 


,D. G. Stephenson ^ 
John Richardson. < 

1882 John Richardson. | 

1883 .John Richardson. < 

1884 .Tohn Richardson. 








.John Richardson. 

•John Richardson. ', 
John Richardson. < 

John Richardson, 

.John ("ichardson. 

John Richardson 

John Richardson. 

D. G. Stephenson. 4 

D. G. Stephenson, 
James Chester . . . 

Wm. Tredway . . . 
James Chester . . . 

Wm. Tredway . . . 
James Chester . . 

A. M. Secor. 
John Richardson . 

A. M. Secor 

John Richardson . 

A. M. .'^eoor . . . 
James Chester 

A. M. Secor. . 
Geo. Morgan 

A. M. Secor. . 
Geo. Morgan. 

A. M. Secor. . 
Geo. Morgan. 

A. M, Secor.. 
Geo. Morgan 

A. M. Secor. . 
Geo. Morgan . 

A. M. Secor . , 
Geo. Morgan . 

A. M. Secor 

Richard Knowles . 

A. M. Secor 

Richard Knowles . 

A. M. Secor 

Richard Knowles . , 

James Chester . . . , 
Alex. Baird 


Wm. Tredway . . 
Thos. Whiteside. 
Jas. Chester . . . . 

Jas. Chester . . . 
Wm. Tredway . 
James Lawrie . . 

Wm. Tredway . . 
John Richardson. 

John Richardson. 
Geo. Morgan. . 

Geo. Morgan 

John Richardson. , 

Jas. Humphrey, jr 
Geo. Morgan 


John Crawford 

John Crawford 

John Crawford 
lohn Crawford 
John Crawford 


John Crawford. 

.John Crawford. 

John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 

John Crawford John Crawford. 

Jas. Humphrey, jr. 
Geo W organ . . . 

Alfred Mason . . . . 
Rich'd Knowles . . 

Alfred Mason . . . . 
Rich'd Knowles . 

Rich'd Knowles . . 
W. W. Walton . . 

Rich'd Knowles . . 
W. W. Walton. . 

Rich'd Knowles . 
W. W. Walton. . . 

Rich'd Knowles . , 
W. W. Walton... 

Rich'd Knowles . . 
David Brown 

David lirown . 
Alex. Baird . . 

Alex. Baird 

Levi E. Annis .... 

Alex. Baird 

Levi E. Annis . . . . 

Levi E. Annis . . . . 
Lyman Kennedy . . 

John Crawford 
•John Crawford 
John Crawford 
John Crawford 
John Crawford 
John Crawford 
G. M. Jacques. 
G. M. Jacques. 
G. M. Jacques. 
G. M. Jacques. 
G. M. Jacques. 
G. M. Jacques. 

John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 

Councils and Councillors. 




John Richardson 

John Richardson 


Deputy Reeve. 

James Chester . 
Alex. Baird . . , 

James Chester . 
Alex. Baird . . . 

John Richardson 
James Chester ■ ■ ■ \ 
Lyman Kennedy . -j 

James Ley . . . . 
Robert Cowan . 


James Chester .... 
Lyman Kennedy . 

Alex. Baird . . . 
Robert Cowan 

Levi E. Annis .... 
Lyman Kennedy . . 

Lyman Kennedy . . 
Robert Cowan .... 

Robert Cowan .... 
Thompson Jackson 

Thompson Jackson 
Andrew Young , . 

Thompson Jackson 
Andrew Young 


A. M. Secor . . 
A. M. Secor . . . 
A. M. Secor. . . 
A. M. Secor. . . 


Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 
Thos. Crawford. 


"Fat" pine knots were the first sources of light, 
the original spark having been produced by means of 
flint and steel to ignite a piece of "punk" or dried 
fungus, usually found in the hearts of decayed beech 
and maple trees. A good knot would yield a flicker- 
ing flame for fully half-an-hour. 

In course of time shallow vessels containing oil and 
cotton wick came in. These were succeeded by dip 
candles, formed by repeated dipping of wicks into 
melted tallow; and these again by moulded candles 
made by the half-dozen or more at a time. Next 
came the kerosene lamp. 

Splints, both ends of which were dipped in sulphur, 
were the forerunners of the present lucifer matches. 

Nearly every man, and many women, carried appli- 
ances for striking a light, consisting of the flint and 
steel, and punk, or prepared cotton or paper. The 
box in which these were, contained was called the 

126 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


"All true work is sacred; in all true work, were it but hand-labor, 
there is a something of divineness. " — Carlyle. 


IN all early settlements, the individual was thrown 
to a great extent on his own resources. The 
mother of the family was not only cook and house- 
keeper, but dairy-maid, laundry-maid, and seamstress 
(as is yet too frequently the case) ; and the head of the 
house acted in the capacity, not of husbandman alone, 
but of carpenter, mason, harness-maker, shoemaker, 
blacksmith, and occasionally miller. 

The house of the first settler was a marvel of wood- 
craft. His furniture consisted wholly of the product 
of the axe and the auger. Seats were either solid 
sections of trees, or slabs in which three legs had 
been inserted in one-and-a-half, or two-inch holes ; 
tables were similarly put together, and bedsteads were 
made by means of long pins inserted in holes bored in 
the logs forming the wall, and supported at their outer 
extremities on blocks ; chimneys were constructed of 
wooden bars crossing each other at the ends in the 
form of a square, the interstices being filled up with 
clay; floors consisted of slabs split from logs, and 
roughly faced with the axe ; hing6s and' latches were 

Trades and Tradesmen. 127 

of wood, and the doors themselves were indebted mainly 
to the axe for their existence. Locks were seldom 
thought of, and when a fastening of this kind was 
considered necessary, a wooden pin passing into the 
door-jamb inside was sufficient ; other pins round the 
walls or in the joists served to support shelves or to 
suspend articles of various kinds ; birch-bark, when 
proctu"able, was made into excellent substitutes for 
boxes, when sections of hollow logs were not so em- 
ployed; even household vessels of large size were 
scooped from suitable pieces of timber ; and in a gen- 
eral way it may be said that the Canadian pioneer 
lived in the Wood Age. In Scarboro he had a great 
variety of material, including magnificent white pine, 
growing two hundred feet in height ; Norway pine ; 
maples of several species ; red, blue, and white beech ; 
slippery and swamp elm ; black and white ash ; oak of 
the varieties known as white, red and scrub ; red, 
black, and silver, or white birch ; black, pigeon and 
choke cherry ; three kinds of thorn, two of spruce, 
besides balsam, cedar, hemlock, tamarack, poplar, 
basswood, balm of Gilead, ironwood, hickory, butter- 
nut, hazel, two kinds of willow, dogwood, stinkwood 
(moosewood, or leatherwood), sassafras, and numerous 
shrubs bearing no local names. 

One naturally concludes that if woodcraft did not 
flourish here it would be a wonder. At first, as a 
matter of course, the trees had to be got rid of regard- 
less of every other consideration but the clearing of 
sufficient space for a crop, and it was some years before 
much demand sprung up for forest products of any kind 
in this locality. Hardwood ashes, and subsequently 
crude potash, were perhaps among the first of industries 

128 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

to yield the settler any income. These were carried in 
schooners from the mouths of the Rouge and High- 
land Creek across the lake, the return cargoes, if any, 
consisting mainly of salt, flour, and simple articles of 
household furniture. With the increase of business 
these trading vessels added smuggling to their enter- 
prise, and it is said that the hollows and ravines of 
the cliff's were the hiding places of contraband goods 
as long as the illicit traffic was carried on. 

This trade flourished for many years, and large 
quantities of tea, leather goods, and general merchandise 
were landed night after night at the mouth of Gates's 
Gully, as recently as 1838. When opportunity served, 
the contraband goods were delivered in Toronto, 
Whitby, and other places. A farmer, delivering tea on 
one occasion, narrowly escaped capture by hiding his 
two bushel bagful in the manger where his horse was 

With the more rapid disappearance of the forest 
immediately around York, and the steady growth of 
the village itself, the Scarboro farmer in course of time 
found it worth his while, with the assistance of " Buck 
and Bright," to haul fuel in the shape of cordwood to 
the seat of government beyond the Don. ^But this 
could be done in winter only, for during the rest of the , 
year the roads were not too good, even when they 
could be called roads at all. In more recent years 
this industry has proved a most profitable one, wood 
selling at one time as high as $7.50 per cord, and even 
now with coal in competition, it will bring from $4.50 
to $5.00 a cord. While the hey-day of this trade 
continued, hundreds of teams entered Toronto from 
Scarboro every morning, and it has been stated that 

Trades and Tradesmen. 129 

upwards of one million dollars must have accrued to 
the township from this source alone. 


At an early date the value of the pine and oak was 
recognized, and as soon as possible after the settlement 
of the township, saw-mills of a primitive kind were 
erected on the numerous branches of Highland Creek 
and the Rouge. In some instances the machinery was 
also used to drive a pair of stones for gristing purposes. 
D. W. Thomson, of EUesmere, supplies the following 
list of those owning mills that have at one time and 
another been running in the township, viz. : On High- 
land Creek, Messrs. David and William Thomson (three 
on one site), J. A. Thomson, J. P. Wheler, Peter 
Secor, Col. McLean, Wilson, Stephenson, Helliwell, 
Post and Closson — those of Messrs. Wheler, Secor* 
and Helliwell being also grist mills. 

On the Big Rouge mills were owned by Messrs. 
Brown, Milne, Lawrie, Eaton, Knox (grist), Aikens, 
Smith and Burr. Mr. Aikens also made oatmeal, and 
Mr. Burr added carding to his sawing industry. 

On the Little Rouge the owners were Messrs. 
Hetherington, Patton, Thomson and Gates ; Mr. Thom- 
son also made flour. 

On Wilcott Creek, Messrs. Harrington, sen., Har- 
rington, jun.. Chapman and R. D. Thomson. 

On the Little Don the sawyers were Messrs. Hough 
and Heron. 

Mr. J. Law gives the date of the first saw -mill at 
Highland Creek as 1804. It was built by W. Cornell, 

* Secor's mill w&s destroyed by fire in January, 1833, but was rebuilt the 
following year. 

130 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

and rented for some years to Mr. Law's father. It was 
probably in connection with this mill that Thomas 
Adams, " an American Dutchman," told Mr. Helliwell 
he helped to build a dam in 1805, where the Helliwell 
Cider Mill stands at the present day. 

Mr. A. W. Forfar says Archibald Thomson erected 
his saw-mill on lot 27, concession 2, about 1808, but 
owing to unsuitableness of situation it was removed to 
lot 26 ; and that David Thomson built a mill on lot 25, 
concession 1, about 1811. 

A mill was erected by Simeon Tomlinson on lot 21, 
concession 4, in 1848, which was the first, or one of the 
first, driven by steam in Scarboro. 

What was known as Arvinston's saw-mill stood on 
Highland Creek in 1849. 

In 1852 John Chapman put up a steam one on lot 
25, concession 3, and there was another on lot 30, con- 
cession C, on the farm now owned by Mr. Job Jones, 
a native of Oxford, England, who came here in 1835. 

Archibald Elliot built one on lot 24, concession 3, in 
1854. In 1856 it passed into the hands of John Milne. 
This mill is still in use, and a pair of stones having 
been added, grain for feeding purposes is here ground. 

This list is no doubt imperfect, for it is certain that 
other mills existed that are now forgotten. 

Twenty-four or twenty-five saw-mills have been in 
operation in the township at one time. 

With so many mills, running even but one saw each, 
the limited area of timber soon became depleted, and 
their occupation fell away. 

A few small steam-mills eventually took the place of 
the numerous old water ones, chiefly to supply local 
demands. Grist-mills were established at a few places. 

Trades and Tradesmen. 131 

Helliwell's did an extensive business for some years, 
but it was destroyed by fire ; Stephenson's was built 
on the site of an old saw-mill ; and the only mill in 
this part of the township now is one for chopping and 
cider-making, belonging to William Helliwell, on the 
south side of the Kingston Road, near Highland 
Creek Bridge. 

About 1830 a flour-mill was erected on lot 19, con- 
cession D, and, more recently, J. P. Wheler built one 
on lot 21, concession D. It was burned down about 
1864. Badgerow's woollen mill stood on lot 16, con. 2. 

A big freshet in 1850 carried away all the old dams. 

For a long time there was no mill nearer than Port 
Hope, and, more recently, Markham, where the grists 
were carried on horseback. But even this was an 
improvement on the earlier condition of affairs, when 
the settlers were compelled to carry supplies of flour 
on their own backs from Toronto. 

Primitive methods of grinding were sometimes re- 
sorted to. Mr. Levi Annis says one plan was to burn 
a hollow in the upper end of a short hardwood log ; 
into this hollow was fitted a flat stone, on which the 
grain was placed, to be pounded by means of a weight 
suspended from a spring-pole. 


In the early days of pure woodcraft the want of a 
blacksmith is not severely felt, unless when a mishap 
befalls the logging-chain, or repairs are required to the 
plough. But the son of Vulcan becomes a necessity 
within a few years after settlement. Among the early 
mechanics of this class we find John Smith (very 
appropriately)-, on lot 19, concession 3 ; John Holmes, 

132 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

lot 26, concession 2 ; David Forfar, lot 28, concession 
2 ; Peter Lyttle and A. Taylor, both in school section 
No. 9 ; Eobert Brown, Chas. McGarry (who was an 
axe-maker), lot 27, concession 5. Thomas lonson, 
father of John lonson, had a shop on the Kennedy 
Road, on the north side of the Danforth Road. A log 
■blacksmith shop, still occupied by A. McPherson, was 
built on lot 35, concession 4, in 1839. Guy Pollock 
was a blacksmith, whose name was adopted as a nom 
de plume by Dr. Hamilton. 

Waggon and plough makers included Messrs. John 
Brown, Urquhart, Bambridge, Colgrove (school section 
No. 9), James Taylor, George Richardson, and Jacob 
Brooks. David Brown, a wheelwright, lived on the 
north side of the Danforth Road, nearly opposite his 
brother Thomas's residence. A waggon shop is now 
carried on at EUesmere by the Forfars. 


As one correspondent says, " The first shoemakers 
were nearly all the first settlers, who made their own 
boots at night, mostly from buckskin, after chopping 
all day." The professional knights of St. Crispin, 
however, were represented by Henry Hogarth, who 
settled here in 1836 ; Homer Newell, about 1840, on 
lot 26, concession 4 ; Richard Skelton, who settled in 
1851 on lot 31, concession 4, where he still resides; 
Joseph Hall, on lot 22, concession 4, in 1857 ; and 
Michael and Richard Crow, two brothers, who opened 
a shop about 1837, on Harrington's Hill, Markham 


Among weavers, the names we find are those of 
Robert Hamilton in 1834, on lot 25, concession 3, 

Trades and Tkadesmen. 133 

and Messrs. Hoshel and Horn, school section No. 9, 
no date. Other weavers were John BrownHe, Frank 
Cavender and Hector Douglas. 

Harness was made and repaired in school section 
No. 9 by T. Dowswell, and another similar business 
was carried on by R. Malcolm (now of Toronto). Jos. 
Wyper, now doing business at Malvern, has been 
there since 1860, and A. Walker has a shop in the 
same place. 

The only tailors mentioned are Messrs. Rose and 
Lauder, and Alex. McKenzie, who " whipped the cat " 
in the township for several years previous to 1840,, 
when, in modern phraseology, the tailor " made gar- 
ments from gents' own material," which at that time 
was "homespun." 

About the same time John Underwood carried on 
his trade in a similar way, near the front road. 

Wm. Ferguson made pumps on lot 19, concession 3,. 
as early as 1855, and Wm. Macklin, on lot 24, conces- 
sion 4, was engaged about 1833, and for some years 
subsequently, in the manufacture of fanning mills. 

Early in the century bricks were made on lot 18, 
concession C, and several othei- places. The earliest 
brickmaker mentioned is James Stonehouse, lot 19, 
concession 5, but there were, no doubt, some before his 
time (1830). 

Immense quantities of magnificent square timber, 
of stave bolts and shingles were for many years shipped 
from the township. R. Stobo was prominent in the 
timber business. Norman Milligan made a specialty 
of getting out masts for the Quebec market. 

The first tanner is said to have been Joseph Pilkey. 
Henry Auburn opei-ated a tannery on lot 29, conces- 
sion B, near the Kingston Road. 

134 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

At the village of Highland Creek there was for 
some time an attempt made to manufacture artificial 
stone, and at the same place there was a small boot 
and shoe factory. 

In this village Messrs. William H. and Benjamin F. 
Closson, sons of the late Stephen Closson, have estab- 
lished a business, the specialty of which is to grow 
potatoes for seed. They have in stock upwards of 
130 new and standard varieties of potatoes, consign- 
ments of which they make between Maine on the east 
and Manitoba on the west. The Closson Bros, deserve 
success, and they have achieved it. 

Many local industries were successfully prosecuted 
by the settlers, whose proximity to Toronto afforded 
them facilities of great value, which they were not 
slow to turn to the best advantage. 


The small, but excellent harbors at the mouths of 
Highland Creek and the Rouge, coupled with the 
existence close by of the very best kinds of timber in 
great abundance, induced several persons to select 
these places during the first half of the century as 
ship-building yards. 

In 1820 a Captain Hadley built on the Rouge a 
handsome schooner named the Duke of York. The 
Captain was evidently somewhat of a naval architect, 
for his vessel is said to have been constructed on 
beautiful lines and to have been the most rapid sailer 
on Lake Ontario, making the trip from Oswego to 
York in from two to five hours less than the time 
required by any United States craft. 

During the winter of 1825-26, Joseph Dennis here 
built for Captain Richardson a fine steamer, called the 

Trades and Tradesmen. 135 

Canada. Alex. Secor and a few others yet living re- 
member numerous events connected with the building 
of this boat, which was successfully launched on the 
3rd of June, 1826, after which she was towed to 
Toronto, where she received the engines made for her 
in Montreal. She was a vessel of fine appearance, 
good sailing qualities, and in every way worthy of her 
builder and her owner. 

In 1834 a vessel was put on the stocks at the mouth 
of Highland Creek by John Allen and " Uncle Tommy 
Adams," also familiarly known as "the American 
Dutchman." This vessel, named the Mary Ann, was 
engaged in local trade for many years, and proved of 
great service to the farmers in carrying ashes, grain 
and shingles away, and in bringing back flour, salt, 
lime, etc.; but her sailing qualities were such that her 
owners were frequently quizzed, on their return to 
port, about the condition of things in Liverpool, Cal- 
cutta and other distant places ! The Mary Ann was, 
in all probability, constructed on some Noachian or 
" stone-hooker " model. 

This year, also, another sailing vessel was built by 
William Quick, west of the ridge called the " Hogs- 
back," on the Eouge. " Bill " Quick named his craft 
the Charlotte of Pickering, but this is all that is known 
regarding her. 

In 1843, Messrs. Scripture and Matthews laid the 
keel of a schooner at Hunter's Hole, on the Rouge, 
and this appears to have been the last of the vessels 
built in Scarboro, or in connection with the township, 
for it should be noted that although the Rouge has 
the main portion of its course in this township, it 
empties into Lake Ontario through the township of 

136 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


" No silver saints, by dying misers giv'n, 
Here brib'd the rage of ill-requited heaven ; 
But such plain roofs as Piety could raise, 
And only vocal with the Maker's praise." 

— Pope. 

" As pleasant songs, at morning sung. 
The words that dropped from his sweet tongue 
Strengthened our hearts : or heard at night, 
Made all our slumbers soft and light." 

— Longfellow. 


IN the infancy of Scarboro the only altar was that 
of the family. There was neither church nor 
minister, yet prayer and praise were not wanting ; the 
days of the patriarchs were renewed. 

But the settlement grew, numbers increased, and it 
became possible to organize meetings for public wor- 
ship. Still, it remained impossible to build a church, 
and gatherings were held in barns, workshops, private 
houses and taverns, or, as they were more properly 
termed at that period, inns or public-houses. The 
old David Thomson tavern furnished such convenience, 
and there, as seems eminently appropriate to the 
earliest records we have of that good man, the first 
communion of the Church to which he belonged was 
administered. It was probably owing to the hetero- 
geneous places of gathering for worship in the early 


Episcopal : ' Meteiooist : 

]. Eev. John Fletcher. 2. Eev. Canon Belt. | -i. Rev. Wm. Briggs, D.D. i. Eev. SI. B. Conron. 

Roman Catholic : 7. Rev. E. F. Gallagher. 

Presbyterian : 

5 Rev. Dr. J. George. 6. Eev. Dr. Jas. Bain. 8. Rev. J. Maokay, B. A. 9. Rev. T. VVightman. 

Churches and Ministers. 137 

settlements that the terms " meeting " and " meeting- 
house " came to be used. 

As far as is known, the first Presbyterian mission- 
ary or minister who visited Scarboro was the Rev. 
Robert McDowall, though it appears from records 
extant that both Baptist and Methodist preachers had 
also ministered to the spiritual wants of the people. 

Mr. McDowall was sent to Canada by the Dutch 
Reformed Church of the United States in 1798, and 
was settled at Adolphustown, an active centre of the 
United Empire Loyalist immigration in 1784, and 
source of religious activities in the various churches. 

Mr. McDowall's duties led him to visit the settle- 
ments as far west as York, and it was during these 
travels that he ministered to the pioneers of Scarboro. 

His visits abovit 1805, are mentioned in the records 
of St. Andrew's Church. 

In 1810, the Rev. John Beattie, also a minister of 
the Dutch Reformed Church, preached in Scarboro 
during his tour of eighteen weeks along the north 
shore of Lake Ontario. 

For several years, dating from 1812 or 1813, ser- 
vices were held in the old log building known as " the 
haunted school-house," near the Springfield Farm. 

The year 1818 marks a new era in the history of 
Presbyterianism in Scarboro. In that year the Rev. 
William Jenkins, who came to Canada from the United 
States in 1817, and was settled at Richmond Hill, 
began to minister regularly to the Presbyterians of 
Scarboro, and at once entered upon the organization of 
a congregation under the name of " The Presbyterian 
Church in Scarboro." The records state that on the. 
26th December, 1818, the Rev. William Jenkins and 


138 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Mr. John Stirrat, who was an elder from Whitby, met 
in Scarboro and took under examination the following 
men nominated by the congregation for the office of 
elder, viz., Andrew Thomson, Robert Johnston, and 
James Kennedy. These men were approved, and were 
ordained to the office of Ruling Elder in the new con- 
gregation, and the first duty assigned them was to 
inquire into the method of communicating religious 
instruction to the children of the neighborhood. 

Mr. Jenkins continued his ministry in Scarboro for 
about twelve years, giving one-third of his time to this 
charge, for which the people paid him $100 per annum. 
In 1819 the congregation of St. Andrew's erected the 
first church building in the township. The land on 
which it was built was the gift of David Thomson, the 
first settler. The building was 30 x 40, frame, and is 
thus described by Mrs. Ross, a daughter of Rev. Jas. 
George, who succeeded Mr. Jenkins : " The first 
church as I remember it was frame, with a stair built 
on the outside' to give access to a gallery, added when 
the congregation grew too large for the ground floor. 
The church was seated with wooden pews.* A long 
narrow table extended from before the pulpit nearly to 
the door, a long pew on each side of it ; a shorter table 
and pews were placed across the end of the church on 
each side of the pulpit. These were the communion 
tables and pews. The pulpit, a high enclosed place, 
was reached by a stair. The precentor's desk, directly 
in front of and lower than the pulpit, was also enclosed." 

It would be a pleasure to quote from this excellent 
account the description given of the manner of con- 
ducting the ordinary Sabbath service, and also the 

*This, no doubt, means that the pews were made of plain deals or boards. 

Churches and Ministers. 139 

communion service, but space forbids. For some 
years the people of all denominations met in this 
building and joined in the Presbyterian service, and 
in the church-yard near by they buried their dead, as 
the tombstones shov^^. 

Mr. Jenkins is described as an excellent scholar, 
an able preacher, keen in sarcasm, and yet guileless 
as a child. He died on September 25th, 1843, exactly 
a quarter of a century after having organized the first 
Presbyterian Church in Scarboro. 

In 1823, other Ruling Elders vs^ere added to the 
church session. They were David Elliot and Adam 
Bell. Tvi^o years later Thomas Paterson wsis added to 
the roll. The first session clerks were William Cas- 
sels and William Elliot. 

On August 22nd, 1833, a call was given to the Rev. 
Jas. George. Mr. George was a Perthshire man, a 
graduate of Dollar Academy, and of St. Andrew's and 
Glasgow universities. Reaching the United States in 
1829, he held several charges, and was highly thought 
of by his people in each place ; but the then prevailing 
unfriendly sentiment to Great Britain was so painful 
to him that he preferred to live and work under the 
old flag, even in the woods of Canada. His Scarboro 
people soon built him a manse, upon land given by 
James A. Thomson, of Springfield Farm, and here his 
wife died within the year, leaving him a grieved and 
lonely man. 

At the time of Mr. George's induction the number 
of communicants on the roll of St. Andrew's was 
seventy. At the same period the following names 
were added to the session roll, viz., Robert Stobo, 
William Paterson, John Skelton, George Thomson, 

140 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

and George Telford. The latter had been an elder in 
the Old Country. 

Under Mr. George the membership rapidly increased, 
two hundred and fifty names being added within a few 
years of his ministry. In him the cause of education 
ever had a staunch friend. He was the founder of the 
first temperance society in Scarboro, and actively 
supported the movement to establish a public library, 
which for many years has afforded the chief supply of 
reading matter in the township. 

In his time the method of conducting the Presby- 
terian worship in Scarboro, as elsewhere, followed much 
more closely than it does now the usage of the " Auld 
Kirk " in Scotland. The service began at ten in the 
morning, and with a short intermission lasted until 
three in the afternoon. In winter the whole service 
was conducted without any cessation, and generally 
lasted four hours. The sermon preached in the after- 
noon often reached an hour and a half in length. 
Most of the people walked to church in those days, 
some of them, as the Hoods and Gibsons, coming a 
distance of six or eight miles on foot. 

Mr. George remained in Scarboro for twenty yeai's, 
with the exception of a seven months' settlement in 
Belleville. In 1853 he was appointed Professor of 
Mental and Moral Philosophy and Logic, in Queen's 
College, Kingston. In 1855 he received the degree of 
Doctor of DivinitJ^ from the University of Glasgow. 
He remained for nine years in Kingston, then accepted 
a call to Stratford, and remained there until his death 
in August, 1870. He is buried in St. Andrew's 
church-yard, where a fine monument was erected to 
his memory by a loving people. A mural tablet to his. 
memory was also placed in the church at Stratford. 

Churches and Ministers. 141 

The following persons were ordained and received 
into the Session of St. Andrew's by Mr. George, in 
1841, viz., Andrew Telfer (or Telford), James A. 
Thomson, Thomas Brown, Robert Hamilton, and Wm. 
Clark, who, with Mr. Telfer, afterwards became elder 
in Knox Church. The session - clerks during this 
ministry were George Thomson and William Clark. 

In 1849, a new church building was erected, which 
was then considered the finest in that part of the 
country. In 1893, it was put in thorough repair, at a 
cost of $1,550, and is the St. Andrew's Church, Scar- 
boro, of to-day. 

A relic of Rev. Dr. George remains in an old, dis- 
colored copy of a sermon preached by him in St. 
Andrew's Church, for the day of public thanksgiving, 
appointed by the Government, for the restoration of 
our national peace in 1838. The sermon is entitled, 
" The Duties of Subjects to their Rulers, with a Spe- 
cial View to the Present Times." It was printed " By 
request of the Congregation," and signed, " In the name 
of the Congregation," by William Paterson, Chairman, 
and James Whiteside, Secretary pro tern. The pam- 
phlet contains thirty -two pages, and was printed at 
the office of " W. J. Coates, 146 King Street, Toronto." 

The vacancy caused by the translation of Dr. George 
to the Chair of Logic at Queen's University, was not 
of long duration. In December, 1853, the Rev. James 
Bain took up the work at St. Andrew's, and, having 
served the congregation ten months as stated supply, 
was inducted to the charge in October, 1854. 

Like his predecessor, Mr. Bain was a native of 
Perthshire, Scotland, and was for twenty-seven years 
pastor of the United Presbyterian congregation at 

142 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Kirkaldy. He came to Canada in 1853, and was at 
once sent to Scarboro, where he continued for twenty 
years as pastor of St. Andrew's. In 1864, a part of 
St. Andrew's was formed into a separate congregation, 
and a fine frame church, known as St. John's, was built 
about seven and a half miles distant. Both churches 
were served by the same pastor. This union was very 
harmonious, and lasted for twenty-five years, when a 
separation took place. St. John's, being within the 
lines of Markham township, then became part of a new 
charge. During this ministry Mr. Alex. Stirling was 
ordained elder. 

In 1874 Mr. Bain demitted his charge, and retiring 
from the active work of the ministry, settled in Mark- 
ham village, where he died on the 9th of December, 
1885, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. His body 
was laid to rest in St. Andrew's Cemetery, where a 
handsome granite monument was erected to his 

Mr. Bain was in many respects a remarkable man. 
Possessed of a clear intellect, he was a vigorous 
thinker, had a wide range of knowledge, debating 
power of a high order, great fluency of speech and a 
magnificent voice. Few were his superiors on the 
platform. He was a man of good business ability, of a 
genial and kindly disposition, and ever ready to help, 
so that when he resigned his charge he had many firm 

The ministers who followed Mr. Bain at St. Andrew's 
are still living, and their work has been done so re- 
cently that it will be unnecessary to do much more 
than mention their names. Rev. Malcolm McGillivray, 
a graduate of Queen's College, Kingston, succeeded 

Churches and Ministers. 143 

Mr. Bain in 1875. He remained about five years, 
demitting his charge in 1881. Mr. McGiUivray was 
very highly respected by his people. Under him the 
congregation greatly increased, and the seating capacity 
of the church was fully taxed. During his time also, 
the Sabbath School was built, and a good beginning 
made towards beautifying the grounds. Too much 
credit cannot be given to the successive Boards of 
Management in the congregation for the energy and 
taste they have displayed in making, not only the 
interior of the church, but all its surroundings, so 
attractive. During Mr. McGillivray's ministry the 
membership roll showed 323 names. 

Rev. Charles A. Tanner, who succeeded Mr. Bain as 
pastor, began his ministry in St. Andrew's in the year 
1882. He had been in Scarboro only a little over four 
years, when he was called by the congregation of 
Levis, Quebec. This call he accepted, and left Scar- 
boro in 1887. During the vacancy which followed, 
steps were taken to effect the afore-mentioned 
separation between St. Andrew's and St. John's. This 
change was made before the present pastor was called. 

In 1888 Rev. D. Barclay Macdonald, who graduated 
at Knox College, Toronto, in 1882, accepted the 
pastorate of St. Andrew's, and is still in charge. The 
equipment of the congregation is now complete, and 
the work is very prosperous. An organ was intro- 
duced into the church in 1889, and the service of 
praise is conducted by a very excellent choir under 
the leadership of T. A. Paterson, with Miss Mary 
Glendinning as organist. There is also a Young 
People's Christian Association. 

144 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

In 1856 a Ladies' Missionary Association was formed 
with the following officers : 

Directress, Mrs. Davidson. 

Board of Management : 

Mrs. Bain. Miss Chester. 

Mrs. Elliot. Miss Whiteside. 

Mrs. D. Brown. Miss Loveless. 
Collectors : 

Eastern District, Misses M. Brown and J. Thomson. 

Western n Misses M. A. Loveless and M. Patton. 

Northern n Misses A. and M. Paterson. 

Southern n - Misses M. Brown and I. Brownlie. 
Home II Misses B. and A. Thomson. 

This society was formed for the purpose of deep- 
ening the interest in, and collecting funds for, the 
education and support of female orphans in India. 
The first orphan thus assisted was named Mary 
Thomson Scarboro, in memory of Mary Thomson, ne'e 
Glendinning, the "Mother of Scarboro." Another of 
these orphans was named Margaret Bain, commemor- 
ating a daughter of the manse. During its first year 
the Society collected for this work nearly fifty-seven 

We find that the following persons have taken an 
active interest in the Society's work at various periods, 
viz., the Misses J. Glendinning, I. Gibson, Mary 
Weir, Margaret Lawrie, Agnes Marshall, Margaret 
Tingle, Janet Bain, Mary Purdie, Jane Frame, Isa. 

In 1880 Mrs. Geo. Elliot resigned the treasurership, 
and Miss Marshall was appointed in her place. The 
Society continued its work until 1888, when it was 

Churches and Ministers. 145 

merged into the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, 
which is now an active missionary society within the 
congregation. The present officers are : 

Hon. President, Mrs. Macdonald. 

President, Miss E. Brown. 

1st Vice-President, Mrs. W. Green. 

'2nd Vice-President, - Mrs. Geo. McCowan. 

Secretary, . - - Miss Ida Carnaghan. 

Treasurer, - Miss Jennie A. Thomson. 

Last year about $116 was sent into the General 
Fund, and $55 in clothing for the Indians of the Cana- 
dian North- West. 

Mr. Adam Bell teaches the Bible-class in St. 
Andrew's Church, and the Sabbath School teachers 
are : 

Mrs. Carmichael. Miss Elizabeth Brown. 

Mrs. Martin. Miss I. Carnaghan. 

Mrs. Green. Miss I. Bell. 

Mrs. A. Thomson. Miss M. Glendinning. 

The Secretary-Treasurer is Mr. W. Carmichael. 


In 1889 Parsonage Church, Primitive Methodist, 
withdrew from the Methodist body, accepted Presby- 
terianism, and was united with St. Andrew's in one 
pastoral charge. It chose Zion for its new name. 
This congregation has a fine brick edifice, is in a 
flourishing condition, and the united charge makes 
one of the strongest country congregations in Canada. 

The officers elected at the time of the union were 
Messrs. David Martin, George Fitzpatrick, and Leslie 
Armstrong, as members of session. On the Board of 

146 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Management have been such men as Adam Richard- 
son, John Tingle, W. W. Thomson, Thomas Pilkey, 
George Coulson, Joseph Tingle, James McBeth, and 
Joseph Armstrong. 

The church has an efficient choir under the leader- 
ship of Miss Minnie Fitzpatrick. This congregation 
has an active Auxiliary of the Women's Missionary 
Society, which is doing excellent work. Its officers 
are : 

President, Mrs. Armstrong. 

Vice-President, Mrs. T. lonson 

Secretai'y, Mrs. Fitzpatrick. 

Treasurers, Mesdames A. lonson and 

A. Richardson. 

The latest statistics to hand for the united charge 

Scholars on Sabbath School roll 149 

Teachers 18 

Present membership on communion roll 307 

Contributions for all purposes $3,079 

" missionary and benevolent work 891 

Gifts of clothing for Indians of the Canadian 

North-West 92 

Cost of manse built in 1887 2,500 

The following figures show growth in the material 
welfare of these congregations : When Mr. Jenkins 
began his work in St. Andrew's in 1818, he received 
$100 per annum ; in 1833, when Mr. George assumed 
charge, he received $500, with manse and firewood. 
Mr. Bain received about the same amount until St. 
John's was opened, when his stipend was increased. 
In 1875, when Eev. Mr. McGillivray took charge, he 

Churches and Ministers. 147 

received $1,000 with manse and glebe. The stipend 
now paid by the whole charge is $1,400, with free 
manse and glebe. 

John T. Brown was session clerk in 1888, and most 
faithfully did he discharge the duties of his office. 
He was always whole-hearted and enthusiastic in his 
work ; a man of kindly disposition, of an ardent tem- 
perament, always hopeful, and ever ready to give both 
time and money to the cause he loved. He was very 
much missed when he withdrew from this congregation 
to reside in Vancouver, B.C. 

The senior member of session was James Russell, a 
man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit. Mr. Russell 
was a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, and 
spent many years in teaching in the early days of 
Scarboro. For a long period he walked over six miles, 
night and morning, to and from his school. He was 
humorously dubbed, " Knight of the Birch Rod at 
Squaw Village." 

Mr. Russell was a man of ripe scholarship, was 
widely read in history, science and literature, and 
thoroughly conversant with theology. After his re- 
tirement from the active duties of life, he spent hours 
each day reading alternately the Hebrew, Greek and 
English Bibles. He died in July, 1890, having been a 
member of St. Andrew's Church for forty-seven years, 
and a member of session for twenty of these. He was 
a man very highly esteemed by his brethren of the 

Besides Messrs. Brown and Russell, there were 
Messrs. James Stirling, John A. Paterson, David 
Martin, Adam Bell, William Carmichael, Beebe Car- 
naghan and William Green, all men of ability, piety, 

148 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

sound judgment, and excellent scholarship. Of the 
session as it then existed, only the last four names 
remain on the roll of to-day. William Heron has since 
been added. William Gi'een acts as session -clerk. 


The agitation that took place in Scotland (leading 
to the formation of what is designated " The Free 
Church"), in 1843, disturbed the Presbyterian brethren 
in Canada, and about 1848 Scarboro was so far affected 
by it as to cause a break-off from St. Andrew's con- 
gregation, and the formation of Knox Church. The 
history is communicated to us as follows : 

Previous to a congregational organization, the meet- 
ings of this body were held in the school-house, lot 29, 
concession 2, and at the first communion twelve per- 
sons partook. At the meeting of the Presbytery of 
Toronto, held on the 7th of June, 1848, steps were 
taken to organize Knox Church, Scarboro. The Rev. 
Dr. Burns, according to appointment of Presbytery, 
visited Scarboro on the 13th of June, examined, and 
enrolled forty members. Arrangements were made 
for dispensing communion on Sabbath, June 25th. 

York Mills* and Knox Church were erected into one 
pastoral charge, and the first minister inducted was 
the Rev. Thos. Wightman. The induction took place 
on the 25th of November, 1848. The Rev. Dr. Willis 
preached, taking as his text Hebrews x. 19-22. Dr. 
Willis addressed the minister, and the Rev. Mr. Rin- 
toul, the congregation. The members of Presbytery 
present at this induction were Rev. Dr. Willis, Mod- 
erator ; Rev. Messrs. Rintoul, Harris and Boyd, and 

*Then and still popularly known as " Hogg's Hollow." 


1. MelviUe. 2. St. Andrew's (1817). 3. Present St. Andrew's (Erected 1849). 
4. Zion. 5. Knox. 

Churches and Ministers. 14& 

James Armour, Elder. Knox's share of the annual 
stipend, at that date, was $200. 

Mr. Wightman was a Scotsman, having been born 
in Dumfriesshire. He received his literary and theo- 
logical education in Edinburgh. In 1844 he came to 
Canada, and was settled at York Mills, which, as 
already stated, was afterwards joined with Knox 
Church. In 1848 Mr. Wightman was inducted to the 
Knox part of the charge. He continued to serve the 
united congregation for four years, and, after the 
separation of Knox Church from York Mills, he min- 
istered to the latter congregation for two years longer. 
His death took place on March 30th, 1871. 

On December 1st, 1852, the union between York 
Mills and Knox Church was, by action of Presbytery, 
dissolved, and the latter was united with Melville 
Church, Highland Creek. 

In 1883 this union was dissolved, Melville being 
united with Dunbarton, Knox Church becoming a 
separate charge. 

The first elders of Knox Church were Wm. Clark ^ 
sen., who had been ordained an elder in Scotland in 
1830; Andrew Telfer, ordained in 1839 (both Mr. 
Clark and Mr. Telfer served in the eldership of St. 
Andrew's for several years, but withdrew on the Free 
Church question) ; Wm. Young, ordained in 1842, and 
Messrs. Wm. Ferguson, John McLevin, and Wm. 
Clark, jun., ordained June 28th, 1849. 

The Eev. Mr. Macdonald, of St. Andrew's Church, 
Scarboro, has kindly supplied the following notices of 
the several ministers of Knox Church : 

Rev. John Laing, now Dr. Laing, of Dundas, Ont., 
was ordained and inducted to the pastorate of Knox 

150 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Church, Scarboro, in June, 1854. The church at that 
time was small, but there was room for growth, and 
within two years the building was enlarged to double 
its original size. 

This was Mr. Laing's first charge, and he being full 
of youthful vigor and earnest zeal, did not spare him- 
self in his work. Regular services were held in Knox 
and Melville churches ; in addition to this, services 
were held in various school-houses, and for two years 
open-air meetings were held near the Rouge. Through 
the instrumentality of his young men's class, Sabbath 
Schools were established in various sections, a preach- 
ing station was opened by him, and a church built near 
the York town-line, and another at Cedar Grove. In 
the village of Mai'kham, too, a station was opened. 
Frequent visits were made to Pickering and Whitby 
on the east, and to Georgina and Yonge Street on the 
north and west. The demands of the work became so 
great that an assistant had to be employed for the last 
two years of his ministry. Dr. Laing is a graduate in 
Theology of Knox College, Toronto, and in Arts, of 
Victoria University. He has done good service for 
the Church, notably on the Home Mission Committee, 
and in connection with Knox College. He held the 
highest position in the gift of the Church, Moderator 
of the General Assembly, in 1890, and has been Clerk 
of the Presbytery of Hamilton for twenty-one years. 

Dr. Laing was succeeded in the pastorate of Knox 
Church by Mr. D. H. Fletcher, who possessed in a 
marked degree those qualities which rendered the 
ministry of his predecessor so successful. It may be 
truly said that these two early ministers gave Knox 
its missionary bent ; that, humanly speaking, Laing 

Churches and Ministers. 151 

planted, and Fletcher and the Mackays watered that 
missionary spirit which is so vigorous to-day. 

Mr. Fletcher's studies were begun in Scotland and 
continued in Toronto, where he attended classes in the 
University. Taking up the study of theology in Knox 
College he graduated in that institution, receiving his 
diploma in 1860. In November of that year he was 
ordained and inducted into the pastorate of Knox 
Church, where he continued to labor for nearly twelve 
years. In 1872, he was called to McNab Street, 
Hamilton, where he still serves. He is now Dr. 
Fletcher, having received the degree of D.D. from his 
Almu Mater a few years ago. Dr. Fletcher has been 
Moderator of the Synod of Hamilton and London, and 
has rendered good service to the Church as examiner 
in Knox College, and on the Board of Management, 
of which he is still a member. Messrs. Laing and 
Fletcher each served in Scarboi'O as Local Superin- 
tendent of Education. 

A vacancy of more than a year's duration, caused by 
the removal of Mr. Fletcher to Hamilton, was ter- 
minated by the induction of Kev. George Burnfield. 
Mr. Burnfield received both his literary and theological 
education in Canada, being a graduate of Toronto 
University and Knox College. He came to Scarboro 
in 1873, and remained about four years, when he 
accepted a call to the First Presbyterian Church, 
Brockville. Mr. Burnfield was a man of wide and 
ripe scholarship, and was gifted with extraordinary 
oratorical powers ; herein, indeed, lay the chief 
strength of his ministry. After leaving Brockville 
Mr. Burnfield held a charge in Toronto, whence he 
removed to Philadelphia, U.S. 

152 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

R. P. MacKay was next in the succession. He 
too, is a Canadian by birth and education, the 
Public schools of Zorra, Woodstock High School, and 
Toronto University supplying his literary equipment,. 
Knox College being his theological Alma Mater. In 
1877, Mr. MacKay was ordained and inducted to the 
pastorate of Knox Church. His ministry there, which 
covered a period of seven years, was strong and 
spiritually fruitful, the missionary spirit of the congre- 
gation being perceptibly broadened and deepened. In 
1884 he was translated to Dunn Avenue Church,, 
Parkdale, from which position, after a pastorate of 
seven years, he was called by the General Assembly to 
the secretaryship of the Foreign Mission Committee. 

John MacKay, also a Canadian and a Zorra man,, 
succeeded his namesake in Knox Church. Mr. Mac- 
Kay's ministry was brief, but not too brief to have done 
good work, and greatly endeared himself to his people. 
His ministry in Knox practically closed in 1890,, 
although he did not resign his charge till 1891. After 
a lingering illness he died in 1894. Mr. MacKay's 
education was wholly received in Canadian colleges. 
He served for some time on the Board of Examiners, 
of Knox College, of which institution he was a 
distinguished graduate. 

The present pastor. Rev. James A. Brown, was 
inducted by the Presbytery of Toronto in November,, 
1891. He is Canadian-born and trained, being a 
graduate of Queen's College, Kingston. As may be 
seen by reference to the following statements, Knox 
Church continues in the enjoyment of uninterrupted 
peace and prosperity under the ministry of Mr. Brown : 

Knox Church is built on lot 26, concession 3, Scar- 

Churches and Ministers. loS 

boro. A more beautiful and central site could scarcely 
be found anywhere. The first parcel of land, consist- 
ing of one acre, was presented to the congregation by 
the late Thos. Kennedy. An additional acre has since 
been purchased by the congregation. 

The first building, erected in 1848, was a frame 
structure. A few years later an addition was made, 
giving the building the form of a T. The old church 
has been converted into two private residences, and a 
new one of brick was erected in 1872. It has a seat- 
ing capacity of 450, and cost over $7,000. The sheds 
can accommodate upwards of a hundred vehicles. The 
church stands in the midst of the cemetery, where the 
sacred dust of many of the early and sainted members 
of the congregation rests, and numerous beautiful 
monuments mark their graves. 

Compared with the small stipend that Knox Church 
could contribute in 1848, the present stipend of $1,000, 
together with a manse and six acres glebe, manifests 
an advance in material prosperity which is a proper 
subject of thankfulness. 

Knox Church is widely known throughout the Pres- 
byterian body as a liberal contributor to missions and 
other schemes of the Church — a Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society, a Mission Band, and a Young 
Men's Home Missionary Society testifying to its 
activity in that direction. In the early history of the 
congregation, its Sabbath School was for many years 
conducted by WiUiam Clark, jun., and Wm. Crawford.. 
At present, 140 scholars are on the roll, with seven- 
teen teachers. 

The temporal affairs of the congregation are en- 
trusted to a board of five trustees, who are elected 

154 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

annually. From the year, 1880 to 1895, Knox Church 
has contributed to ordinary revenue and for benevolent 
purposes above $22,250, and for missionary purposes 
in the neighborhood of $12,500, a sum total of $34,750 
— an average of over $2,000 per annum. 

The membership of Knox Church in 1895 was 267. 
Of the forty members enrolled in 1848, but three 
remain, viz., Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Elliot and Mrs. Wm. 
Clark, jun. 


In comparison with St. Andrew's, the parent of 
Presbyterianism in Scarboro, Melville Church is recent. 
Knox congregation, established in the north-west sec- 
tion of the township in 1848, took a warm interest in 
the foundation of another in the south-east, where the 
adherents of the Presbyterian Church were then, and 
are still, fewer than in any other section of Scarboro. 
It was at first proposed to erect the church on the 
Markham Eoad, where it is intersected by the first 
concession; but the gift of a building site, and a liberal 
donation of money by the late Ceorge Stephenson, 
influenced those concerned to erect the building on 
the more suitable spot where it now stands. Its 
position is thus described by a loving hand : 

" Charmingly situated on the crown of a high hill, 
encircled with pines, firs, and cedars, stands Melville 
Church, overlooking the beautiful valley to the east 
through which Highland Creek meanderingly finds its 
way to the blue waters of Lake Ontario, which can be 
seen in the distance. Immediately in front of its 
sacred threshold passes the Kingston Road, always 
thronged with industrious farmers and others on their 

Churches and Ministers. 155 

way to the markets of the Queen City, thirteen miles 

Melville Church, like Zion of old, is therefore " beau- 
tiful for situation." 

In December, 1850, Mr. Telfer, Representative Elder 
for Knox congregation, appeared before the Toronto 
Presbytery, asking for ministerial supply, which was 
cheerfully granted for every alternate Sabbath. On 
the 19th December, 1851, the church was opened and 
dedicated to the service of God by the venerable Dr. 
Willis. The fortnightly supply from Toronto Presby- 
tery, ceased in December, 1852, when the congrega- 
tions of Melville and Knox churches united as one 
pastoral charge. On this occasion the first "sacra- 
ment " was observed by nine communicants, two of 
whom are still living — Mr. Jonathan Baird and Mrs. 
Stephenson. The Rev. Thomas Wightman was the 
officiating minister at this memorable service, and 
Messrs. W. Young and Wm. Ferguson acted as elders. 

In 1854 the Rev. John Laing was ordained and 
inducted. Shortly after his advent several families 
connected with the " Auld Kirk " (among whom were 
the Neilsons and Cowans) joined the infant congrega- 
tion, and brought hope and strength with them. Mr. 
Laing remained until 1 860, when, greatly to the regret 
of his people, he accepted a call to Cobourg. 

In the same year he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. 
Fletcher, who labored most indefatigably and with 
great success, until his removal to, Hamilton in 1872. 

In 1873 the Rev. George Burnfield, B.D., was called 
and inducted, and for over three years filled the pulpit 
with unusual brilliance and ability. 

The Rev. R. P. MacKay was ordained and inducted 

156 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

over the congregation in 1877, and labored faithfully 
until 1882, when the connection with Knox Church 
was severed, and a union consummated with Dunbar- 
ton Church, in the township of Pickering. 

A call was then accepted by Rev. R. N. Craig. 
During his pastorate a new church was erected on the 
old site, and dedicated on the 4th September, 1887; by 
the Rev. Dr. Fletcher, of Hamilton, one of its former 
pastors. Mr. Craig did excellent work, but in 1889, 
to the regret of his congregation, he resigned. The 
minister at present is Rev. John Chisholm, who was 
called and inducted in 1890. 

The growth of the congregation of Melville Church 
has been slow but steady, its inost active growth 
having taken place within the last six years. 

The number of members on the roll this year (1896) 
is one hundred and forty-five. 

The amount given as share of minister's stipend in 
1890 was $350 ; at present it is $500. , The total 
amount given in 1889 to the schemes of the Church 
was $119 ; in 1895 it was $310. 

William Cowan is the present superintendent of the 
Sabbath School, the condition of which is in every 
way satisfactory. 

The Women's Foreign Missionary Society, presided 
over by Mrs. H. Westney, is in excellent working 
order, and annually raises large contributions in 
money, besides supplying clothing for the Indians of 
the Canadian North- West. 

The elders of the congregation at present are Wm. 
Cowan, sen., George Scott, Wm. Stephenson, John 
Mcintosh, Alex. Neilson and Robert Cowan. 

IRec ^amen Coneumebatur. 

Churches and Ministers. 157. 


The mother Church of England in Scarboro, and the 
second of any denomination built in the township, was 
St. Margaret's. There seems to remain no record of 
the time the building was begun, but it is told that 
Robert Jackson, the father of T. Jackson, was out 
shooting in the woods in 1828 or 1830, and came upon 
it in an unfinished state. He at once took steps 
toward its completion ; subscriptions were raised, and 
about 1830 St. Margaret's Church was opened. It is 
unfortunate that the records of the Church of England 
in Scarboro are apparently lost. Many particulars, 
therefore, that would have been invaluable in a history 
of the township are not at our service. Previous to 
1830, it is certain that the Church of England had 
adherents in Scarboro, and that clergymen from York 
ministered to the wants of the scattered people. 
The late Archdeacon McMurray, of Niagara, at this 
period a young man, used to hold service in private 
houses in the township, and it is related that in riding 
to his appointments, his feet were often in the mud, he 
being a tall man, and the roads in many places bad. 

St. Margaret's Church owes its name to Mrs. 
Margaret Washburn, whose husband, the Hon. Simon 
Washburn, contributed largely to its construction. 
Mrs. Washbiu-n was a sister of Lieut. -Col. FitzCibbon 
of Beaver Dams fame. The Hon. Simon Washburn 
owned much land in and about Scarboro township, 
and more ^an once contested the county against 
William Lyon Mackenzie. At the time of its erection 
St. Margaret's Chvirch stood close to the road between 
Kingston and York, but the straightening of this 

158 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

highway threw the church some distance north of 
what is now the Kingston Road. 

The first interments in the grave-yard were the 
bodies of some persons named Fisher, who died of the 
cholera epidemic in 1832. 

With regard to the furniture of the church, the 
following extract from a contribution by the Rev. Dr. 
Scadding, of Toronto, will be interesting: "I remem- 
" ber very well the sounding-board, pulpit and reading- 
"desk in St. Margaret's, West Hill, as the place is 
"now designated, so I am informed. I have more 
" than pnce taken duty there ; but that church being 
"somewhat farther east on the Kingston Road was 
" rather out of my beat. I used to see the same 
" sounding-board, pulpit and reading-desk in St. James' 
" Church, Toronto, not then a Cathedral Church at 
"all. In 1818, on the establishment of peace. Dr. 
" Strachan, the incumbent, enlarged the old primitive 
" church building at York, and improved its appear- 
" ance by adding to it a belfry and spire. Hon. Francis 
" Gore, the Lieutenant-Governor of the period, fur- 
" nished the renovated interior with the sounding- 
" board, pulpit and reading-desk at his own expense. 
" When the first St. James' Church, constructed in 
" stone, replaced the wooden structure about the 
" year 1838, and all the interior fittings were changed, 
" the sounding-board, pulpit and reading-desk which 
" Governor Gore had so generously presented were 
" donated as a charitable gift to the Church on the 
" south [since the change of line, now on the north] 
" side of the Kingston Road, some way below the 
" Four-Mile Tree. The original cost of the gift was 
" $100." This furniture was removed five years ago. 

Churches and Ministers. ISO' 

It is believed that the Rev. Mr. Dade was the first 
regular incumbent of St. Margaret's. In 1840 Rev. 
W. H. Norris, LL.D., was appointed, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. W. S. Darling. The following incum- 
bents have since held the charge: Rev. W. Belt, M.A., 
Rev. John Fletcher, M.A., Rev. C. R. Bell, Rev. Henry 
Owen, Rev. E. Horace Musson, Rev. F. Burt, and the 
Rev. Thaddeus Walker, the present incumbent, who 
took charge in 1891. 

The first incumbent received a stipend of six hun- 
dred dollars a year, and the present has eight hundred. 

The early records being lost, the first name on the 
existing register of baptism is that of Stephen West- 
ney, now of Pickering, about the date of 1843 ; but a 
correspondent, T. Jackson, says the first baptisms 
were those of two children, one of Mrs. George Bam- 
bridge, and the other of Mrs. Burton, and that at that 
time the floor of the church was not wholly laid, so that 
it must have been about 1830. The first marriage, 
which was solemnized, it is said, by Rev. Mr. Fletcher,, 
was that of John Law to Miss Caroline Bell. 

The church seats about two hundred, is now in 
excellent repair, and shows but little trace of sixty- 
eight years' wear and waste. The church-yard sur- 
rounding St. Margaret's is well cared for, and is by 
far the most beautifully situated of the many burial- 
grounds of Scarboro. Among its earliest interments 
was a member of the Booth family. 

Bishop Strachan seems to have administered con- 
firmation in this church, and at one time over a 
hundred candidates were presented. Even in later 
times seventy was no uncommon number. Confirma- 
tion-cards used to be given to the young communicants 

IGO History of the Township of Scarboro. 

on these occasions, a commendable practice that has 
fallen much into disuse. 


The second Episcopalian place of worship erected in 
Scarboro was Christ Church. It was built in 1845-6, 
the funds being collected largely through the eflPorts 
of the Rev. W. S. Darling, then incumbent of Scarboro. 
The land was the gift of the late James Humphrey,* 
and the building committee was composed of some of 
the leading members of St. Margaret's Church. Among 
these were Messrs. William Westney, Robert Jackson, 
James Humphrey, John Taber, and Henry Galloway. 

The contract was let to Wm. Harris, carpenter, and 
the plastering to the late John Baxter, of Toronto. 
The building was first covered with cement, laid off in 
squares to imitate stone, but this soon came off, and it 
was boarded, as at present. 

The bell, which has a very fine tone, was hung about 
1860, and cost $160, which was defrayed by the Ladies' 
Sewing Society. 

The church was opened on the loth of June, 1846, 
Rev. W. S. Darling conducting the morning service, 
and the Rev. Mr. Winstanley that in the afternoon. 

Rev. Mr. Darling was incumbent of Scarboro for 
ten years, and was very active in promoting the inter- 
ests of Christ Church. In all good deeds he was 
aided by his wife, who was an indefatigable worker 
both in church and Sunday School. 

The Rev. Wm. Belt (now Canon Belt, of Burlington) 
was incumbent for sixteen years. Under his direction 
the Church was very prosperous, and at that time had 

*Some say J. Hopper gave part of lot 33, concession 3, Scarboro. 

Churches and Ministers. 161 

one of the largest English Church congregations in the 
township. Too much praise cannot be given to Mr. 
Belt and his family. He was very popular with all 
denominations, and took a great interest in the Militia 
and the Public schools. 

In 1887, during the incumbency of Rev. Mr. Burt, 
Christ Church was remodelled inside ; the old-fashioned 
pufpit and reading-desk were taken down and new 
desks put in their places. One of these was the gift 
of the late Mr. Cheape, and the other of Wm. Eolf, 
of Markham. The stained glass window was put in 
at the same time. 

The reopening on Sunday, November 6th, 1887, was 
conducted by Rev. Canon Belt and Rev. Prof Clark, 
of Trinity College, Toronto. Many of the congregation 
who had left the parish attended the service. 

Scarboro has other Church of England congrega- 
tions beside St. Margaret's and Christ Church. At 
L'Amaroux is St. Paul's, about the same age as Christ 
Church, and at the town-line between Scarboro and 
York, St. Jude's was erected in 1848, the site of it 
being taken from St. Saviour's at East York, and St. 
John's at Norway. 

In the early days our venerable friend Dr. Scad- 
ding conducted services with considerable regularity 
in the L'Amaroux settlement. 

Christ Church Sunday School is one of the oldest in 
the township; its history is to be traced back to 1831, 
when Adam Anderson taught in the old St. Margaret's 
Church. For some time prior to the building of the 
present church, Mr. Anderson conducted the classes 
in an old log school-house on lot 14, concession D, and 
when Christ Church was finished they were held there. 

162 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Edward Galloway assisted Mr. Anderson, and taught 
for a number of years in St. Margaret's. 

Among the many workers and teachers in the school 
in the past may be mentioned Rev. W. Belt, Mrs. 
Belt, Misses Matilda Humphrey, Ellen Jackson and 
Margaret Thompson, Rev. C. R Bell, Rev. H. Musson, 
Mrs. Musson, Wm. Humphrey, Misses Anne Knight 
and Maggie Humphrey, and Rev. Wm. Burt. 

The present officers of the school are: Albert 
Chester, superintendent; Misses M. Secor, M. Jack- 
son,* M. Cornell and L. Dodd, teachers, and James 
G. Cornell, librarian. 

The library is a good one, and although the newer 
plan of selling or passing on to other schools, collections 
of the books purchased, is now the rule, there remain 
on hand some of the volumes which constituted the 
first library. They are standard works of the time^ 
and become increasingly valuable. 


In the year 1820 the Methodist circuits in Upper 
Canada were seven, viz., Detroit, Thames, West- 
minster, Ancaster, Yonge Street, Duffin's Creek, 

It was from Yonge Street that Scarboro was served, 
and when it is understood that in 1805, this Circuit 
" included the townships on both sides of ' the street ' 
from the Bay of Toronto to Lake Simcoe ; as Scarboro, 
York, Etobicoke, Vaughan, Markham, King, Whit- 
church and East and West Gwillimbury," some idea 
of its area may be formed. It is possible that it also 
included the hamlets of Toronto township, namely, 
Trafalgar and Nelson, of " The New Purchase." 

* Died since MS. was prepared. 

Churches and Ministers. 163 

Itinerancy was a distinguishing feature of Method- 
ism in those early days as now, but then it was an 
itinerancy that meant everything the word imphes in a 
newly opened country of forest, lake, and stream, in 
winter as well as in summer ; in the rains and mud of 
autumn, and the mire and slush of spring. 

" The opening of Methodist activity in Canada," says 
Carroll, " began with the entrance into the Province 
of the Unity of the Empire Loyalists in 1784," and in 
his " Case and his Cotemporaries," Vol. I., p. 3, a very 
gfaphic account of early Methodism and of the United 
Empire Loyalists in Canada is to be found ; but these 
pages are too few to allow us to enter into more than 
the local history of the great movement. 

As far back as 1803, itinerant ministers came into the 
township and preached wherever they could get a 
hotise. One of the chief meeting places was at the 
home of Levi Annis, who kept a public-house. Meet- 
ings were also held in barns, waggon-shops, school- 
houses, or wherever a congregation could be gathered. 
■ There was no station or circuit nearer than Yonge 
Street. Very few individual members of the Methodist 
Church came from the Old Country to Scarboro, but 
the persistency of the travelling Methodist preacher 
won many adherents. Levi Annis was a very warm 
friend to the ministers, who had to travel many miles 
over bad roads and through the woods in those days 
from one " preaching place " to another. They invari- 
ably rode on horseback in summer, and sometimes on 
a "bung" — a small sleigh with a pole and neckyoke 
for one horse — in winter. They were compelled to 
carry with them their books, horse-provender, and food 
for themselves, the latter often including tea, then 

164 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

considered a great luxury, and, probably too, a treat 
for the good wives who entertained them on their way. 

When the preacher arrived in a neighborhood the 
day before "meeting," messengers were sent in all 
directions, and the entire community for miles around 
came to the service. The stipends in those days were 
very moderate, single men receiving $80 per annum, 
and married men $160. This the preacher had to 
collect for himself as he went, and not seldom it would 
be paid him " in kind," while in bad times he might 
have to content himself with less than his due. 

Annis's was the chief centre of Methodism in the 
township for many years, and among the earliest families 
identifying themselves with the body were also the 
Richardsons, Proctors, Howells, Washingtons, McGin- 
nises, Pilkeys, Fawcetts, and Thompsons. 

Some of the travelling preachers who helped to 
mould the character of the people, and preached at least 
once every two months at McGinn is's or Annis's, 
sometimes at other farm-houses, were, in 1803, Seth 
Crowell, Wm. Anson, Dr. Bangs ; 1805, Robt. Corson ; 
1808, Mr. Pickett ; 1809, John Reynolds ; 1810, Joseph 
I>ockwood, who hunted coons in the north of the town- 
ship till he got enough skins to make himself a coat ; 
1811, Andrew Prindle ; 1812, Jos. Gatchel ; 1813, 
Thos. Harmon, who fought alongside of General Brock 
on Queenston Heights, and who preached powerful 
sermons, dramatic, passionate and emotional ; 1815, 
John Rhodes ; 1817, David Gulp ; and in 1818, James 
Jackson and W. W. Rundle. 

At this period Messrs. McGinnis and Pilkey often 
went all the way to York to attend the preaching there, 
driving an ox-sleigh in winter and a lumber waggon in 

Churches and Ministers. 1G5 

summer. From the year 1818 to 1827 the folio whig 
pioneer itinerants preached more regularly in various. 
parts of the township than did their predecessors : Revs. 
David Yeomans, David Gulp (who exchanged at times 
with the preacher at Duffin's Creek), Daniel Shepherd- 
son, John Ryerson, Wm. Slater, Wm. H. Williams,. 
Jos. Atwood, .Jas. Richardson, Egerton Ryerson,. 
Cornelius Flummerfeldt, John Carroll. 

In 1828 the Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada 
separated from the Methodist Episcopal Church of the 
United States ; but the separation had not much effect 
on the cause in Scarboro, as no church had yet been 
built. A very notable conference in Canadian Meth- 
odism was that at Hallowell, held in 1833. At this 
conference it was decided to unite with the parent 
body in England, and from that date Methodism in 
Scarboro progressed with great rapidity, and numerous 
church buildings were erected. Scarboro was still 
supplied from the Yonge Street Circuit ; but among 
later developments and necessary rearrangements, 
Markham was set off as a circuit and ScarborO' 
included as one of its stations. 

From 1828 to 1850 the following names of ministers, 
laboring in the township are given as well-remembered 
and faithful men : Revs. David Wright, Mr. Corson, 
Edmund Stoney, John Beatty, Thomas Bevitt, James 
Hutchinson — nearly all of them Canadians, the fruit 
of the labors of the first Methodist preachers from the 
other side. 

In connection with Markham Circuit are men- 
tioned Rev. Messrs. McFadden, Campbell, Madden,, 
John Potts, Graham, Norris, Haight, John N. Lake ; 
and the following families-, among others, as helping iir 

166 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

the formation of societies : J. P. Wheler, Wm. Barn- 
bridge, Peter Secor, the Swallows, William Heron, 
Isaac Brumwell, the Duncans, and Eichard Staunton. 

If space would permit, a most instructive and' inter- 
esting chapter dealing with the personnel of the earliest 
Methodist ministers who served the township could 
be given, but we must refer the reader to Rev. Dr. 
Carroll's exceedingly valuable work, from which we 
have already quoted, namely, " Case and his Cotem- 
poraries," and proceed at once to the churches. 

The Wesleyans seem to have built the first Method- 
ist church, or, as it was then called, "meeting-house," 
in Scarboro, in 1838. It was named after Stephen 
Washington, a respected member and liberal donor, 
and about 1865 two other churches, Wexford and 
Highland Creek, were joined with it in one circuit, 
called the Wesleyan Methodist Scarboro Circuit, with 
the Rev. J. P. Lewis — now rector of Grace Church 
(Anglican), Toronto — as first pastor. His successors 
up to date of the union of all Methodist bodies, were 
Revs. D. L. Brethour, J. H. Harris, J. H. Robinson, 
J. E. Smith, C. V. Lake, J. F. Medcalf, J. W. Annis, 
M. Fawcett. To thp latter is due the commencement 
of the Ladies' Aid Society, in 1884, Mrs. Fawcett being 
President, and the membership twenty-six. The min- 
isters since the union have been Revs. T. R. Read, 
M. B. Conron (who has lain these four years by the 
side of his beautiful young wife, nee Annie Wilson, in 
Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto), J. J. Redditt, 
F. C. Keam, G. W. Stephenson. 

In 1875 a parsonage was built by the Wesleyans in 
Scarboro village, at a cost of $2,000. It was enlarged 
in 1893, and belongs to the united body, the Primitive 


1. Malvern. 2. Christie's. 3. Scarboro Junction. 4. Free Methodist. 6. Hillside. 
6. Centennial. 7. Ebenezer. 8. Washington. 9. Wexford. 

Churches and Ministers. 167 

Methodists and Bible Christians having paid their 
share towards it. 

The amount of money raised annually by the Wash- 
ington Church congregation for all purposes is $800. 

The Sunday School is a flourishing institution, and 
has 110 scholars on its roll. William A. Heron is 
the superintendent, Harvey Dix the secretary, and 
Joseph Sparks the treasurer. The teachers are L. E. 
Annis, Hattie Wilson, Mrs. W. A. Heron, Mr. Wilkins, 
Mrs. Baker, and Sarah Heron, the latter being also 
librarian. Since 1865 the following have been super- 
intendents of the school : Joseph Richardson, James 
Montgomery, John Ross, Wm. Dark, John P. Wheler, 
and Wm. A. Heron, the latter having acted from 1875 
to the present date. 

The pastor of Washington Church is Rev. G. W. 

In 1875 Christie's Church was joined to the Scar- 
boro Circuit. It first belonged to Yonge Street South 
Circuit, and was built in 1846. In 1888 this church 
was joined to the Unionville Circuit, to which it still 

Ministers who have been appointed to this church 
were Rev. T. Turner, who was in charge when the 
church was built ; Revs. Wm. McFadden, Thos. Jones, 
Wm. Wilkinson, J. W. McCallum, and John Hunt. 
According to Methodist practice, married ministers 
remain three years on a circuit ; the young, or unmar- 
ried men, one. 

The Primitive Methodists began to preach in Scar- 
boro about 1840. They first met in a school-house 
near where Zion Presbyterian Church now stands. 
In a short time they built a hewed log meeting-house, 

168 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

lathed and plastered inside, and clapboarded on the 
outside, and this was used for worship until 1874 or 

The Primitive Methodist church on Kennedy Road,, 
known as Sewell's, and also as Bethel, was built on a 
site presented by Thomas Walton in 1842. The deed 
of the Bethel site was signed by the following repre- 
senting the Primitive Methodist Church : Joseph 
Sewell, WalUs Walton, Joseph Pilkey, Isaac Chester, 
Jas. Palmer, John Atkinson, and Charles D. Maginn. 

It was witnessed by the minister then on the circuit,, 
Rev. Wm. Lyle, and by John Sewell. 

This church was built of brick burned on the ground 
by John Atkinson, now of Toronto. He also did the 
masonry of the church ; and the carpenter work was 
done by a son of Isaac Chester, whose name 
appears on the deed. The whole cost of the unpre- 
tentious edifice was £100. A plan of the Circuit in 
1844 is preserved ; it contains the names of twenty- 
seven preachers and three exhorters. Revs. John 
Lacy and M. NichoUs were the itinerant ministers, the 
others being local preachers. The Circuit at that date: 
embraced Toronto and several stations outside, as well 
as Sewell's, or Bethel, Twaddle's* Chapel, now Zion 
Presbyterian Church, and Markham Road Chapel. 
Services were held in Bethel every Sunday after- 
noon up to 1881. The membership numbered about 

Providence, another Primitive Methodist appoint- 
ment in the Scarboro Circuit, was built on the King- 
ston Road in 1859. Services were continued in this 
place until 1890, when the present Methodist Churck 

* Spelled in the baptismal certificate of Mrs. Jas. lonson, Tweedle. 

Churches and Ministers. 169 

was dedicated. After Bethel was closed, the two 
societies united and met only at Providence. 

This congregation built a new church at Scarboro 
Junction after the union, about 1891. It is a frame 
structure and cost $1,000. 

Some of the leading members at the time were John 
Everest, John Heal, and Gr. F. Stephenson. They 
have a flourishing society, with an aggressive Christian 
Endeavor organization, which contributes to support a 
foreign missionary. It was organized in 1890, with 
William Oliphant as President. Wm. Dark is the 
superintendent of the Sunday School. 

The Primitive Methodists also organized a society 
and built a church at Malvern about 1855. 

These three churches, forming part of a circuit, had 
as ministers Rev. Messrs. Markham Sims, William 
Thornley, R J. Stillwell, EU Middleton, C. O. John- 
ston (now of Toronto), Wm. Avison, and R. McKee, 
who was the last pastor before the union, the pastor 
residing at the Parsonage Church. 

Another Primitive Methodist church was at Milli- 
ken's Corners. The society was first organized in a, 
dwelling-house (some say Brookes's waggon-shop, lot. 
26, concession 5, Scarboro), where it met for two years. 
Its first ministers were Rev. Messrs. Lyle and Jolly. 
A frame church was then built, and called "Ebenezer." 
The trustees were Thos. Harding, John Turner, Wm. 
Stonehouse, and John Stonehouse. Thos. Harding 
gave the land, on lot 24, concession 6, Scarboro. The 
building cost $300. 

The travelling minister for the new church was the- 
Rev. Matthew NichoUs, the " young man " being Rev.. 
J. Edgar. The senior or married minister received 


170 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

$300 per annum, and the younger or unmarried, $150. 
In 1853 a flourishing Sabbath School was organized, 
the superintendent being Mr. Waters. 

In course of time, the building becoming inadequate 
to the wants of an increasing congregation, a new brick 
church was erected in 1877, on the other side of the 
town-line, the Rev. J. W. Eobinson being the pastor 
in charge. In order to get the deed for his own land 
back from the Conference, the former donor, Thomas 
Harding, bought an acre of land from Wm. Morgan, 
at a cost of $200. It was situated on the south-east 
corner of lot 1, concession 6, Markham. The church 
is a fine structure of brick, with a full-sized basement, 
and cost $7,000. The trustees at present are Thos. 0. 
Harding, R. H. Mills, and M. Eisbrough, the minis- 
ters in charge being Eevs. E. J. Fallis and A. J. Paul, 
with a membership of forty persons. The amount 
raised for church and school purposes per annum is 
$310. The married minister's salary is $700, the 
unmarried $350. There are eighty children on the 
Sunday School roll. 

The cemetery grounds are pleasantly laid out in 
plots, with gravel walks, and a beautiful row of ever- 
greens and maples surrounds them. 

The Free Methodist Church at Armadale was the 
result of a revival in 1879 under Valtina A. M. Brown 
and Arlette E. Eddy, who were sent by the Canada 
Conference of the Free Methodist Church. The out- 
come was the organization of a society of thirty mem- 
bers. The first class-leaders were Silas Phoenix and 
Robert Loveless, the Rev. Thomas Carveth taking 
charge as pastor. A place of worship was built and 
dedicated free of debt in November, 1880. 

Churches and Ministers. 171 

The building is frame, ai>d has seating for 250 ; the 
cost, with shed, being $1,100. The site, consisting of 
half an acre on lot 19, concession 5, was given by 
Francis Underwood. The dedicatory sermon was 
preached by the Rev. B. T. Roberts, M.A., of North 
Chili, N.Y. 

The following pastors have had charge up to the 
present, viz.. Revs. Thomas Carveth, John Adams, 
James Craig, D. Marston, Wesley C. Walls, Wm. H. 
Wilson, Stewart Walker and James Clink. The salary 
paid is $300 per annum. 

The Discipline of this Church requires members to 
renounce the use of tobacco and spirituous liquors, and 
forbids connection with secret societies. The mem- 
bers are most conscientious in these particulars, and 
the missionary spirit of the Church is manifest from 
the fact that they have sent out three preachers and 
three evangelists. They have held five camp-meetings 
in the neighborhood. 

The Sabbath School numbers thirty-five scholars 
and four teachers, Elijah Loveless being the present 

The total amount of money raised in 1895 was $500, 
thus disbursed : Preacher's salary, $300 ; District 
Elder, $48 ; Sabbath School supplies, $20 ; Inci- 
dentals, $50 ; the balance, $92, being devoted to mis- 
sionary purposes. 

Of the Bible Christian Methodists, who were among 
the bodies that united to form a grand Methodist 
whole, the congregation which used to worship on lot 
3, concession 1, Kingston Road, in turn with the other 
denominations, bought a site, in 1863, for a church of 
their own. Their pastor at the time was Rev. H. J. 

172 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Stevens. The lot they purchased from Thos. Adams 
was the north quarter lot 1, concession 1, upon which 
they built a stone church, 27 x 30, at a cost of $300. 
The congregation was in connection with Pickering 
Circuit. In 1867 a Sunday School was opened, with 
Andrew J. Courtice as superintendent, a position he 
held for fourteen years, when he was succeeded by 
Richard Collins. This was a " union " Sunday School 
up to the date of amalgamation with the Methodist 
body in 1883. 

After the union, the " Stone Church " congregation 
was joined to Highland Creek Methodist Church, and 
was placed on the Scarboro Circuit. At the time of 
the union. Rev. Mr. Read was appointed on the Cir- 
cuit, and services were held alternately in the Stone 
Church and at Highland Creek. This pastor endeav- 
ored to bring the two congregations together by build- 
ing a new church, but failed. The late Rev. M. B. 
Conron, his successor, organized a Ladies' Aid Society 
to raise funds for the same purpose, but it was 
reserved for his successor, Rev. J. J. Redditt, to fur- 
ther the project by the appointment of a building 
committee, which purchased a site on lot 3, concession 
1, north of Kingston Road, from R. Knowles. 

iJnder the pastorate -of Mr. Redditt's successor, 
Rev. F. C. Keam, tenders were called for by the Build- 
ing Committee for the erection of a church, and the 
contract was awarded to Messrs. A. Gray and A. W. 
Secor. The price for the building proper was agreed 
on at $2,500, and on November 7th, 1891, the whole 
was completed at a cost for site, building, furnishings, 
sheds, fence, etc., of $3,420, of which $1,000 towards 
the church building was contributed by the Ladies' 

Churches and Ministers. '173 

Aid. This is known as Centennial Methodist Church. 
A good Sunday School is held in the basement of the 
church. W. H. Closson is the superintendent. 

An Epworth League holds meetings every Sunday 
evening at 7 p.m., the members taking turn as leaders, 
the subject to be considered being prescribed by the 


As the first form of the Christian religion presented 
to the Indian nations who occupied Canada at the time 
of the French settlement ; as the religion of the gov- 
ernment then set up, and of the colonists themselves 
with very few exceptions ; as the centre of education 
in the colony, and the heart of a most vigorous mis- 
sionary effort on behalf of the savages, the Roman 
Catholic Church in Canada must ever engage the care- 
ful attention of the historian. 

In the Province of Ontario, then an unknown region 
of the great west, ineffaceable traces remain of the 
labors of great French missionary priests as early as 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. Lalemant, 
Breboeuf, Daniel, Jogues, are names the poet still 
delights to honor. They were men of learning whose 
observations have been invaluable to science ; men of 
piety whose lives were not dear to them. Later days 
have kept up the record of able priests of the Roman 
Catholic Church who gave their best to the building 
up of their faith and the country of their birth or 
choice. Laval, Macdonell, LaSalle, Charbonnel, Power, 
are names honored and revered not alone in their own 

As settlements grew in number and extent through- 
out this province, it was deemed desirable that a more 

174 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

exact oversight of their people should be established, 
and certain new dioceses were set off. In 1826, when 
that of Kingston was organized, there were but seven 
stationed priests in the Province, and Roman Catho- 
lics in the back settlements were, like their Protestant 
neighbors, often without the ministration of their 
Church for lengthened periods. Scarboro, therefore, 
only shared the common lot in having no settled priest. 
At York, however. Father Crowley was stationed, 
and as often as possible he visited his little flock at 
Scarboro, they honoring his teaching by travelling into 
York as often as wind and weather permitted, to 
receive the Sacraments of the Church for themselves 
and children. 

In 1843 the parish of Oshawa was established, and 
the Church in Scarboro received the ministrations of 
the priest stationed there. This was Rev. Father 
Proulx, whose stately figure and noble bearing are 
still remembered. 

Father J. B. Proulx was born at Lachine in 1808, 
was ordained at Montreal, July 26th, 1835, and was 
first stationed at Laprairie, opposite Montreal. On 
coming to Upper Canada he was sent by Bishop Mac- 
donell to work among the Indians at Penetanguishene, 
and afterwards on Manitoulin Island. In 1846 he was 
given charge of the parish of Oshawa, and in 1858 
went to Toronto. 

On his visits to Scarboro, Father Proulx said mass at 
the houses of Mr. McHenry and Mr. Nash, now in- 
cluded in Markham township ; and at Highland Creek 
at the house of Mr. Walsh, where the travelling priest 
always found a warm welcome and a home. 

Churches and Ministers. 17& 

In 1854 Father Proulx earned the gratitude of his 
scattered little flock at Scarboro by building for them 
a church, their present place of worship, St. Joseph's, 
at Highland Creek, and leaving it to them free of debt 
as a gift of his love and good-will. 

In 1860 the^ parish of Pickering was erected, and 
Scarboro was included therein. The present priest in 
charge is the Rev. C. F. Gallagher. This gentleman 
studied classics and philosophy at St. Macarten Semi- 
nary, County Monaghan, Ireland, and theology at the 
Grand Seminary, Montreal. He was ordained by 
Archbishop Lynch on the 21st September, 1877. 

Since his ordination he has held charges at Niagara, 
Caledon, and Schomberg, and came to his present 
parish in October, 1892. 


Any account of the religious denominations of the 
township would be incomplete without a special refer- 
ence to the Mennonites, who, though comparatively 
weak in numbers, are strong in moral influence. 

Unpretending and unaggressive as these people are,, 
they pursue the even tenor of their way most consist- 
ently. Owing to their system of government, without 
a clerical body of any kind, mention can be made of no 
leading members. 

In Markham the Mennonites are considerably more 
numerous, and excellent accommodation has there 
been provided for worshippers, those of Scarboro 
uniting for this purpose with their brethren in the 
former township. 

176 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The Scarboro Branch Bible Society was organized 
on the 11th of November, 1856, within St. Andrew's 
Church. Eev. James Bain, President ; Wm. Clark, 
Robt. Hamilton, J. P. Wheler, John D. Thomson, 
Vice-Presidents ; Rev. John Laing, Secretary ; James 
A. Thomson, Treasm-er ; Archibald Glendinning, David 
Brown, Depositaries. 

Present officers : W. A. Heron, President ; Alex. 
Neilson, Vice-President ; Amos Thomson, Treasurer ; 
R. M. Loveless, Secretary. 

Total contributions since organization, over $5,300. 

As an illustration of the pranks performed by the 
whirligig of Time, the following may be taken : 

In the early part of this century Mormon mission- 
aries invaded the township and secured a number of 
converts, among whom was John Taylor, a Methodist 
preacher (some say he was also a teacher), who "for- 
sook all and followed " the disciples of Joseph Smith. 
He was imprisoned with the Smiths in 1844, and on 
the occasion of the attack made upon them in jail he 
was severely wounded. In 1880 he became head of 
the Church of Latter Day Saints, as successor to 
Brigham Young, and died in exile, July 23rd, 1880. 
He was born in England in 1808. 

1. E. R. Jacques. 2. Mrs. Thompson. 3. James Russell. 5. W. D. Fitzpatriok. 


4. Dr. Pollock. 6. Dr. Closson. 

Schools and Teachers. 177 


"There is no teaching until the pupil is brought into the same state or 
principle in which you are ; a transfusion takes place ; he is you, and you 
are he ; there is a teaching : and by no unfriendly chance or bad company 
can he ever quite lose the benefit." — Emerson. 

THE occupation of teacher in the early days 
was not in every respect a happy one. In 
nearly every instance the teacher was a man — no one 
else was thought able to rule the rough-and-ready 
youngsters of pioneer days. At an early age the boys 
of the farm were initiated into the mysteries of 
^'hunting" the cow, "branding" and "niggering" in 
the new clearings, " minding gaps," driving oxen, blaz- 
ing away with old flint-locks at predacious crows and 
hawks, and of numerous other employments, many of 
which are now rendered unnecessary by the march of 
events. The associations connected with some of 
these experiences, coupled with the lack of home com- 
forts and conveniences, and the general extremely 
natural condition of society, did not tend to foster in 
the young people of those days what we call refine- 
ment. The parents had neitlier time nor inclination 
to concern themselves about manners, and, as a conse- 
quence of these and other factors, discipline was fre- 
quently very lax. Given, therefore, from a dozen to a 
score or more of precocious backwoods boys and girls, 

178 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

crowded into a small log building, in nowise charac- 
terized by commodiousness within, any more than by 
architectural beauty without, we may well cease to 
wonder why the grandparents, and great-grandparents 
were less amenable to discipline than are the young 
folk of our own day. 

But this was not all. The old-time preceptor had no 
knowledge of educational principles ; he entered the 
school and left it, a tyrant, in the worst sense of that 
word. His professional creed was summed up in the 
easily understood and easily applied dogma, " No 
larnin' without lickin'." An old soldier, a decayed 
tailor, an otherwise unsuccessful anybody, was good 
enough for a school-master, if only he could prove his 
claim to be a master after the approved manner of his 
day and generation. All things considered, his pay 
was not bad — it was not, at any rate, much worse than 
salaries paid to-day, when qualifications are taken into 
account. Indeed, if we gauge the scale of payment in 
early days by the ability on the part of parents to pay 
it, it was very high. Consider, also, the delights of 
the erstwhile dominie when he "boarded 'round!" — a 
week here, two or three weeks there, in proportion to 
the number of young rebels from one family over 
whom he had to raise his rod, aye, and let it fall, too ! 
What splendid opportunities were afforded him to gain 
a varied experience of sleeping quarters, of cookery, of 
domestic etiquette, of the home influences brought to 
bear on his pupils — to display his own erudition and 
exalt his attainments before the old folk, to increase 
his stock of knowledge from the recitals of others, and 
to become familiar in every sense with " the people of 
the parish." 

Schools and Teachers. 179 

School fittings were extremely simple in character — 
long backless benches, sometimes so high that when the 
children were seated, their feet did not reach the floor ; 
equally long desks ranged round the walls, or when 
double-sided, standing in the middle of the floor; a 
chair and table, perhaps, for the teacher, and we have 
the furniture of the old-time school-house, unless we 
add the stove, which in its time superseded the big 
fire-place with roaring chimney. Yes, this was all. 
The first school-rooms were innocent of pictures, of 
maps and charts, of globes, of blackboards, and of the 
numerous appliances that are now to be found even in 
the poorest schools. But changes came in due course, 
and as the circumstances of the people improved, com- 
forts and conveniences were added for the benefit of 

It must not, however, be supposed that these details 
were in every instance applicable to our township, the 
pioneers of which had in most cases received the bene- 
fits of parish school education,* including, it need hardly 
be said, a thorough grounding in Christian doctrine, 
both directly from the Bible, which was the text-book 
for reading purposes, and from the pages of the Shorter 
Catechism. These people were, therefore, not likely 
to overlook the amenities of every-day life either in 
the domestic, or in their somewhat restricted social 
relations, and when children appeared in the clearings 
of Scarboro, they were brought up with nearly as much 
rigidity of discipline as if they had been in the " land 
of brown heath and shaggy wood." English, Irish and 
American settlers were also of an intelligent class, 

• Receipts and accounts kept by the Thomsons in 1796 are well written 
and accurately spelled. 

180 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

with clearly defined ideas regarding the respective 
duties of parents and children, and the advantages 
pertaining to common school education. We may there- 
fore readily understand that in settlements so consti- 
tuted, much interest would be displayed in providing 
for the young people as good schools and school-masters 
as were possible at the time. Notwithstanding this, it 
is evident that the circumstances of the settlers neces- 
sarily implied the existence of conditions which, while 
they were not by any means approved of, had to be 
tolerated, and there is no lack of proof that the back- 
woods seminaries in Scarboro at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, and even somewhat more recently, 
were not of a type greatly superior to those of other 

The following from the pen of David Martin, who 
himself received his education under Scarboro school- 
masters, is an excellent epitome of educational affairs 
in his day, but it must be remembered that the genuine 
old-time school had by this time been considerably 
improved upon, although he makes some reference to 
the condition of things preceding his own experience. 
Mr. Martin says : 

" For many years, indeed during the first half of the century, 
the school-houses were of the most primitive kind. The forest 
furnished the readiest and cheapest material. The logs, if of 
pine, were flattened on two sides ; if of hardwood, they were 
generally left round, dovetailed in the usual way at the corners, 
the interstices between the logs being chinked and plastered. 
In size, the buildings seldom exceeded 18 x 24 feet, and were 
never too high. The fire-place usually occupied one end, and 
desks facing the wall ran round the other three sides. The 
seats consisted of long forms without backs. Similar forms or 
benches placed crosswise in the centre of the room furnished 

Schools and Teachers. 181 

seats for the smaller children. The limited space forbade any- 
thing in the shape of desks, those luxuries being reserved for 
pupils in arithmetic and writing. Light was admitted through 
long windows similar to those common in blacksmith and 
carpenter shops, and were usually two panes high and ten or 
twelve panes long, the sashes sliding past each other horizon- 
tally, for purposes of ventilation. In winter, fuel was supplied 
by the parents, who were required to bring a quarter of a cord 
per pupil. The teacher was promised no stated salary, but 
received a rate per pupil (commonly 3s. 9d., or 75 cents per 
quarter), taking his chances of emolument, — the more pupils^ 
of course, the more pay. In the early part of the century it 
was not uncommon for the teacher to receive his board gratis, 
staying a few weeks with one and another of the families- 
represented at the school. If unmarried, which was often 
the case, he sometimes lived in the school, keeping ' bachelor's 
hall.' The number of teaching hours was alternately thirty 
and thirty -six per week, each alternate Saturday being a holi- 
day. About 1860 a change was made, the time of teaching 
being reduced to five days per week. 

" It will readily be seen that as long as the teacher was paid 
as described above, the schools were situated without regard to 
any kind of system, the first consideration being the desirabi- 
lity of a large attendance. Indeed, this was the chief factor in 
determining where a school should be placed. This method of 
locating school-houses continued until 1847, at which date a 
change took place. The township was then regularly divided 
into sections, almost exactly as they are at present, new schools 
being erected in the centre of each section. For the building 
and maintenance of these schools, trustees were empowered to- 
levy a rate on the section. Among other advantages, this, 
enabled the trustees to engage a teacher at a certain fixed 
salary. A rate bill, commonly twenty-five cents per month, per 
pupil, was charged, and if the amount so collected failed to pay 
the stipulated salary, a tax was levied on the ratable property 
of the section to supply the deficiency. All the expenses of 
conducting the school — fuel, repairs, etc. — were provided for- 
by general taxation. 

182 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

" For a long time great difference of opinion prevailed as to 
the relative merits of free schools versus rate-bill schools, and 
as the matter was for a number of years entirely optional with 
the ratepayers, the question as to which should be adopted, 
recurred regularly at the annual meeting, and very heated dis- 
cussions sometimes took place. A poll frequently being opened, 
adherents of the respective systems drummed up votes with as 
much enthusiasm as at a parliamentary or municipal election. 
Opinion, however, gradually settled down to the conviction 
that on the whole, the free system was the preferable one ; 
opposition to which having almost entirely ceased, the schools 
were finally declared free, by law. In those early days very 
high qualifications on the part of teachers were not demanded, 
and were seldom secured, ability to teach the three ' R's ' fairly 
well being considered sufficient. The method of teaching dif- 
fered widely from what it is now. The younger children were 
taught individually until sufficiently advanced to read and 
spell words of one or two syllables, when they were put into 
classes for reading and spelling, these being the only subjects 
in which the pupils were taught collectively. For those in 
writing, the teacher usually set the headlines by hand, in addi- 
tion to which he had in many instances to rule the paper, and 
make and keep in order the quill pens, which were the only 
kind in use. Steel pens were introduced sometime in the 
' forties,' but did not come into general use until about 1850. 
To pupils in arithmetic, no two of whom were probably work- 
ing in the same part of the book, the teacher had to give his 
attention individually. 

" The First Books, or Primers, used were such as the fancy 
or caprice of the parents might dictate, and as they were not 
taught in classes, uniformity was not a necessity. After the 
Primers, Mavor's combined reading and spelling-book was in 
almost universal use. For the more advanced pupils, Cobb's, 
Webster's and Carpenter's spelling-books were employed by 
some masters, but their introduction never became general. In 
reading, the Bible, Testament and the English Reader were the 
principal, indeed the only, text-books, the last-mentioned being 

Schools and Teachers. 183 

composed of selections from the most eminent authors in prose 
and verse, compiled by Lindley Murray, author of the well-known 
grammar. Verses of Scripture were committed to memory 
by the pupils. Before 1850 geography received comparatively 
little attention, which, in some respects, was perhaps not much 
to be regretted, as, previous to that, almost the only available 
books on the subject were by American authors, strongly anti- 
British, conveying the impression, as American publications 
usually do, that the United States was the greatest, and, in 
fact, almost the only country or nation worth mentioning on 
the face of the earth. Grammar was also much neglected, but, 
when taught, Lennie's and Lindley Murray's were the principal 
text-books, chiefly the former. In arithmetic, that of Francis 
Walkingame was mostly, if not exclusively, used, until super- 
seded by the Irish National book about 1850, which, in turn, 
became obsolete about 1858 ; the introduction of the decimal 
currency about that time necessitating a change. In schools 
where a large proportion of the children were of Presbyterian 
parentage, the Shorter Catechism was taught by some teachers 
when requested by the parents, but the practice has long since 
been discontinued. On the whole, the schools of the period to 
which I at present have more special reference, in the first half 
of the century, were fairly efficient. The teachers, who were 
mostly Old Countrymen, often Scotsmen, ruled, perhaps, with 
somewhat despotic sway, enforcing their authority with a 
sometimes pretty free use of the birch, or rather the blue beech, 
a vigorous application of which now and then for purposes of 
discipline was thought to have a salutary effect. But what- 
ever their faults in this respect (if they were faults), and how- 
ever slender their attainments, the old-time teachers succeeded, 
to a fair extent, in imparting to their pupils the rudiments, at 
least, of a good education, and comparatively few of the chil- 
dren of those early settlers were to be found who could not, at 
any rate, read and write." 

In the 1 8 X 24 log school-rooms, it will be readily 
understood, accommodation was not ample during the 
winter months when even the grown-up young people 

184 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

availed- themselves of the opportunity afforded hy 
slackness of work to attend school, more especially 
when, as sometimes happened, the reputation of the 
teacher stood high. Hats, caps and wraps of all sorts 
were stuffed into desks, for the want of nails and hooks 
on which to hang them. Windows were frequently 
destitute of several panes ; chinking fell out ; knot- 
holes in floors were covered with prominent patches ;. 
desks and benches became loose and creaky ; doors 
ceased to fit their frames, or, perhaps, rather the 
frames ceased to fit the doors, for it was not uncom- 
mon for the whole structure to assume an appearance 
of utter recklessness, by sinking more or less to one 
side, and thus generally disarranging the simple archi- 
tecture.* But even this condition of things was not 
without its compensations, chief of which was, perhaps,, 
the advantages secured by way of ventilation. 

Sometimes a second edifice of logs succeeded the 
original one in a section, but in most cases the first 
building was superseded by a frame structure, and 
more recently by one of brick or stone. With the 
advancement of time came also improvement in the 
grounds ; neat fences and gates were supplied, trees, 
were planted, respectable outhouses erected, and 
the water supply was attended to. In every instance 
these improvements have been found to " pay," both 
directly and indirectly, for not only does the task of 
discipline become thus a comparatively easy one for 
the teacher, but the effects are visible on the pupils in 

* It was not unusual in the old buildings to protect the home-made ink 
of the pupils from freezing during winter, by burying the bottles nightly 
in a hole made under the floor. 

Schools and Teachers. 185 

Modes of punishment in the old days were barbar- 
ous. It is recorded of one teacher that he sometimes 
tied the thumb of one hand of a pupil to a string hang- 
ing from the roof or ceiling, while the other hand held 
a book, the pupil meanwhile having to stand on one 
foot until his task was finished, or his punishment 
thought sufficient. 

The first school taught in the township was in the 
house of James Elliot, on lot 22, concession D, in the 
extreme north-west corner of the present section 9. 
This school was taught by a man named Pocock, an 
Englishman, in the year 1805. The first school-house 
built in the township was on the Springfield farm, near 
the line between lots 23 and 24, concession 1, within a 
few rods of where St. Andrew's Church now stands. 

S. S. No. I. — The first school-house was of logs, 
built on lot 31, concession 3, in 1817, and the first 
teacher was a Mr. Edward, who was followed by 
Messrs. John McFiggin, Jos. Maughan, or (according 
to one statement, Mr. Clark), Andrew McFarran, and 
Messrs. Hugel, Cooper, Muir, Leitch, Nealy, W. D. 
Eitzpatrick, John McConnell (afterwards Dr.), McKin- 
non, Tomlinson, Eield, Ramsay, Quantz and Yeo. 

The present trustees are J. Kennedy, J. C. Clark 
and Thomas Armstrong. 

8. 8. No. 2. — In 1830, the increase of population 
and the need of better facilities than were afforded by 
schools in distant parts of the township, led to the: 
erection of a log school-house on lot 25, concession 3.. 
The first teacher appointed was James Little. 

This building continued to be used for nineteen 
years. A new one, also of logs, was put up in 1849,, 
on the site of the present school-house, lot 22, conces- 


186 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

sion 4 ; but it was burnt down in 1851. Temporary 
quarters were found until 1853, when the school-house 
now standing was erected. Estimated cost, $1,500. 

The teachers following Mr. Little were Messrs. 
Upham, Cooper, McDonald, Mills, Eckroyd, Mc- 
Kinnon, McCaffrey, Wm. Irving (now Dr.), Steele, 
Lancaster, Martin, Macklin, McLean, Doherty, Whaley, 
Bruce, Ward, Yeo, Dean, and Misses Jeannie Elliot, 
Carrie Clifford and Agnes Moir. 

Present trustees, Matthew Elliot, Alex. Macklin, 
James I. Stewart. 

S. 8. No. 3. — The first school was opened in this 
section in 1836, in a small log building on lot 17, con- 
cession 4, Markham Road, and the teachers in this old 
structure were James Park, Alex. Muir and — Hand. 

A new frame school-house was erected in 1851, on 
lot 15, concession 3, on the corner of the Stirling farm. 
There was just enough ground for the building to 
stand, and the scholars had the Queen's highway as a 

In 1872 a brick building took the place of the frame 
one, on lot 15, concession 4, where an acre of land, at 
$250, was not thought too much for the wants of the 
young people. This building cost $2,500. 

Since the erection of the frame school-house in 1851, 
the following teachers have been engaged : James 
Eussell, Wm. Davison (4 years), George McKennell 
(5 years), E. R Jacques (9 years), G. M. Jacques (8 
years), J. B. Dunham, G. W. Ormerod, W. J. Clark (2 
years), E. T. Young, John F. Stewart, Samuel Jewett, 
and the present teacher A. R. Jacques, now in his 
third year of engagement. 

Present trustees, John J. Weir, Wm. Pearson and 
Charles Monk. 

Schools and Teacheks. 187 

^. S. No. 4. — The first school section was a union 
one with Pickering, the school-house standing on the 
town-line, and the first teacher was a big Scotsman 
named Ferguson, of whom all that two of his old pupils 
now living can remember, is the force and frequency 
with which he applied the " taws." 

Other teachers were Messrs. Reesor, Break, Clark, 
Spence, Johnson, and Misses Lawrie, Hewitt, Poole, 
Montgomery and Irwin. Present teacher, Mr. Wells. 

Present trustees, Thomas Maxwell, Thomas Reesor 
and James Murison. 

S. S. No. 5.— About 1823 or 1824, the first school 
was established in this section, the humble building 
having stood on the north-west corner of lot 26, con- 
cession 1.* A Mr. Carruthers taught here in 1824, a 
Mr. Dobson was teacher in 1830, a Mr. Hope in 1836, 
and these followed : Messrs. Clark, McFiggin, Muir, 
O'Reilly, Closson and James Russell, t When the 
township was divided into sections in 1847, a new 
frame school-house was built on the south-east corner 
of lot 30, concession 2. The present commodious 
building was erected in 1871, the builders being Thos. 
and David Forfar. 

Present trustees, A. A. Forfar, Beebe Carnaghan 
and Thomas Pilkey. 

S. S. No. 6. — The first school-house in the township 
was built within the bounds of the present Section 

* Some say it was on concession 2, and one statement is tc the effect that 
it was known as the Squaw Village school. 

+ Mr. Russell lived near the Rouge, 7| miles from the school (which he 
taught in the early "fifties"), and as there were in those days no Saturday 
holidays, he had to walk ninety miles a week to and from school, to which, 
if we add another fifteen miles to and from St. Andrew's Church on Sunday, 
we have, a total of 105 miles a week, or nearly 5,500 miles a year ! For 
other particulars referring to Mr. Russell, see " Churches and Ministers." 

1.S8 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

No. 6. It stood on the Springfield farm, lot 23, con- 
Cession 1, and was built of round logs with saddle 
corners, and one door in the end. It cannot now be 
ascertained with certainty who the first teachers in 
this school were. For some years it was used as a 
church. The next building in Section 6 was erected 
on lot 24, concession 1, on the corner of the grave-yard 
lot. The old men to-day speak of playing hide-and- 
go-seek among the tombs when they went to school 
here. It was made of hewed logs, with a door and 
two windows in the side, and a fire-place in the end. 
Here John Taber taught. 

The third house was built on lot 19, concession 2. 
It was a frame building. John Muir taught here for 
many years. The present brick building was erected 
in 1863, on lot 18, concession 2. It has a senior and 
junior department. 

Teachers in No. 6, as far as can be known, were 

— Anderson, John Taber, J. Muir, — Gibson, 
A. M. Sheriff", Alex. Muir, W. D. Fitzpatrick, H. M. 
Campbell, T. Macdonald, W. Purvis, — Smith, W. J. 
Clark, Miss Taylor, W. J. Coltman, Alfred Kennedy. 
In the junior .department. Misses L. Dunsmore, 

— Hewitt, — Squire, L. Willis, F. B. Duncan and 
M. F. Pearson. 

Present trustees, Robert Purdie, Robert Green and 
John Baird. 

8. S. No. .7. — The first school-house was on the 
Fishery Road, and was an ordinary square building of 
l^lank, erected in 1832. The first teacher was John 
; Wilsoij, a Yorkshii-eman. 

The second building stood on lot 14, concession 
D, on the side-road. The Rev. Saltern • Givens fre- 

Schools and Teachers. 189 

quently held Episcopal service here. Methodist 
ministers also held service here. 

The third school-house was built on the West Hill, 
and is now the dwelling of the Camps family. 

The present structure (frame) is on lot 9, con- 
cession 1, a little north of the Kingston Road. The 
school property is valued at about $2,000. There are 
nearly 150 children of school age in the section, and 
the number in attendance in 1895 was 122. 

Present trustees, Jas. Neilson, Henry Westney. 

8. S. No. 8. — Not fewer than six school-houses have 
existed in this section. One stood near the residence 
of George Taylor, close to the intersection of the Dan- 
forth Road and the side-road, between lots 26 and 
27, concession C. Another was on lot 27, concession 
C, near the farm-house of Robert Martin, at present 
occupied by James Miller. No dates can be given in 
connection with these buildings. The site of a third 
school was on the side-road between lots 34 and 35, 
concession C, almost in front of Wm. Thomson's resi- 
dence. This school was built about 1824, and was 
taught in 1826 by a Roman Catholic named Fitzgerald. 
After him came Mr. (afterwards Dr. ) Carroll, an emin- 
ent Methodist minister, who died not many years ago. 
Still later, but prior to 1833, the teacher was Miss 
Hannah Fitzpatrick, and afterwards Wm. Thomson. 

This building was removed to Moffat's Corners, and 
re-erected on the York side of the town-line. 

Miss Fitzpatrick also taught in an old church which 
was removed to York, and thence to Wexford. 

The fifth building used as a school stood on the 
north end of lot 32, concession C, near the residence 
of Alex. McCowan. The teacher was a Perthshire 
Scotsman named David Ogilvie. This was about 1835. 

190 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Another old school-house stood on the north end of 
lot 32, concession 1. It was erected, as nearly as can 
be ascertained, about 1838, of flattened pine logs, and 
measured about 18 x 26 feet. It was first taught by- 
Miss Mary Branham, and afterwards by David Ogilvie, 
from 1842 to 1845 ; by an Englishman named Thomas 
Adams from 1845 to September, 1847 ; and for the rest 
of the year by A. Veysey. When the schools were re- 
arranged, in consequence of dividing the township into 
regular sections, the school was removed to the centre 
of the section, and Mr. Veysey continued teacher until 
the end of 1849. 

The following is a list of teachers who have been in 
Section No. 8 since 1st January, 1850 : 

Thomas Cooper 1850, and part of '51. 

Duncan McNair Remainder of '51 and part of '52. 

Mr. Leonard " " '52. 

*Timothy T. Coleman 1853, '54, and '55. 

Duncan Fitzpatrick Part of '56. 

Mr. McKay Remainder of '56. 

William R. Bain - 1857. 

-f-Alexander Muir 1858 and part of '59. 

James Poole Remainder of '59, and 1860. 

John McConnell 1861. 

Henry M. Campbell 1862, '63, '64, and '65. 

JJohn A. Wismer 1866. 

Martin Sutherland 1867-'68. 

§Thomas Hogarth 1869, '70, '71, '72, '78, and '74. 

Cranswick Craven 1875-76. 

* Afterwards entered the medical profession, and was some time mayor 
of Seaforth. 

t Now Principal of Gladstone School, Toronto. 

I Now Commercial teacher of Jamieson Avenue Collegiate Institute, 

§ Now Principal of Leslieville School, Toronto. 

Schools and Teachers. 191 

William H. Bewell 1877, 78, '79, '80, '81, '82, '83. 

Miss Mary E. Caldbeck 1884, '85, and part of '86. 

Miss Elizabeth Armstrong - Remainder of '86 ; '87, '88, '89. 

Miss McCarten, ] 

Miss Yeomans, I - 1890. 

Joseph Paxton, j 

Miss M. E. Pomeroy 1891. 

Miss Catherine McMurchy 1892, '93, '94. 

Miss Fanny B. Duncan 1895-'96. 

The present school-house is of brick, 54 x 36 feet, 
and cost $1,900. Its predecessor, which had stood 
from 1846 to 1863, cost $280. The present teacher is 
Miss F. B. Duncan. 

Present trustees, LesKe Armstrong, Jas. Crichton, 
George McCowan. 

S. S. No. 9. — The first school-house is said to have 
stood on lot 18, concession D. The second one was 
on lot 19, concession C, on the old Kingston Road. 
The third was on lot 14, concession D. Another 
building used as a school-house stood on lot 26, con- 
cession C, and here Mr. John Taber taught in 1835. 
The present school-house in Scarboro village was 
erected in 1861 at a cost of $1,400, exclusive of the 
site which was purchased for $400. In 1895, $642 
was levied for school purposes ; the average attend- 
ance having been 65, the whole number of school age 
in this section being 140. 

Present trustees, Smith Wilson, William Patton, 
Andrew Young. 

S. S. No. 10. — The first school-house in this section 
was built on Danforth Road, lot 26, concession C, on 
the farm owned by George Taylor, sen., about 1823. 
Wm. Bell, sen., Isaac Chester, sen., and Geo. Taylor, 

192 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

sen., attended school there. John Taber taught for 
some time. In 1833 the school-house was built on the 
Kingston Road near the Half-way House. Some years 
after this another school-house was built on the south- 
east corner of lot 29, concession C This afterward 
gave place to the school-house on the site of the 
present one on the Danforth Road. The present 
building was put up in 1870. In 1894, S. S. No. 10 
was enlarged by 500 acres from the south-east corner 
of S. S. No. 8. The section thus enlarged was divided 
into two, the one to the west next to York town- 
line being designated S. S. No. 12. Names of some of 
the teachers are the following : John Taber, Mr. 
Simmons, Mr. Cowan, Mr. Skelton; and teachers of 
later years were Isabella Findlay, Libbie Latham, 
A. P. Latter, Oscar Pickering, David Whiteside, Miss 
I. C. Gibson, G. R. Hodgson, and the present teacher, 
N. K. Walter. 

Present trustees, Geo. Smith, John Heal, Jonathan 

8. 8. No. ii.— Before 1836, the first log building 
used as a school-house was on lot 4, concession 1. 
The teacher, Mr. Sammons (or Salmons) boarded 
from house to house, but slept in the school-room, 
rolling his bed up every morning and placing it in a 
corner. In 1836, a building of planks was put up for 
a school-room, on lot 3, concession 1, Kingston Road. 
Por its day this was rather a superior structure, with 
a cottage roof It is now used as a dwelling. The 
builder was "Uncle Tommy Adams." From 1837 to 
1843 the teacher was Hugh Graham, who was suc- 
ceeded by William Steele, who remained until 1850. 
Prom 1850 till 1858 the teachers were William 

»• Schools and Teachers. 193 

Clark, Thomas Nealy, Miss Falls and Miss Jacobs. 
In 1850 Miss Dorothy Campbell became teacher, and 
through her efforts a more commodious and more sani- 
tarily satisfactory building of stone was erected on 
lot 1, concession 1, in 1860. The trustees were Messrs. 
C. C. Sanders, Ed. Huxtable and Wm. Cowan. Since 
1861, Miss Campbell's successors were Wm. Peart, 
Miss Lowry, Arch. Little, Thos. Hogarth, A. E. Annis, 
Wm. Fleming, W. B. Walker, Susan J. Huggard, E. B. 
Butler, C. Palmer, C. Craven, Miss M. Hewitt, John 
Stonehouse, A. Law, C. Craven (again for four and a 
half years), Geo. Tait, D. H. Campbell (3 years), J. E. 
Kelly, W. H. Closson, C. F. Ewers, E. W. Tonkin, 
C. F. Ewers, M. E. Smith from 1891 to 1895, and for 
the present year, Sara Norris. 

The school-house is finished in modern style, and 
is equipped with maps, charts and globes. The school 
property is valued at $1,200. 

S. S. No. 12. — Opened September, 1896. Building 
cost $2,200. Teacher, Maud Eobertson. 

Present trustees, Daniel Baldwin, George Bell, 
Francis Duffort. 

In the old frame school that stood near Gates's 
tavern between 1840 and 1845, the teachers were 
Wm. Salmonds, Jas. Mcintosh, Wm. Skelton, John 
Boyle, John Jackson and Thos. Moodie. 

A. M. Sheriff once taught at " McHenry's," on 
the Danforth Road, one and a half miles east of 

Before the appointment of county superintendents, 
the gentlemen who acted as township superintendents 
in Scarboro were the Rev. Messrs. George, Belt, Laing 
and Fletcher. 

194 History of the Township of ScA.rboro. 

In Smith's " Canada," published in 1851, reference 
is made in the Business Directory of Vol. I. to " W. 
H. Norris, Principal of Collegiate School, Scarboro," 
and to " A. F. Purcell, Classical Master of Collegiate 
School, Scarboro." As it has been impossible to 
find any record of this " Collegiate School," the infer- 
ence is that Messrs. Norris and Purcell announced 
themselves as above, rather because they were willing 
to manage such a school, than that it existed. 

The Alexandra School is conducted under the In- 
dustrial School Association of Toronto. It is situated 
on the eastern limits of Toronto, and is maintained 
for girls. It was established in 1890, and consists of 
two cottages. The school is reformative in character. 
There were twenty-four ward pupils at the Alexandra 
in 1895. The grounds are fourteen and a half acres 
in extent. Miss Walker is Superintendent ; assist- 
ants, Miss Brainard and Miss Hill. 

The Blantyre Industrial School is a Eoman Catholic 
reformatory institution for boys. It consists of the 
old Blantyre mansion and grounds, the former having 
been remodelled and enlarged. The institution is 
beautifully situated and the extensive grounds afford 
ample employment to the pupils. 

Among all the dominies who have exercised sway 
in this township, Thomas Appleton deserves special 
notice. He was a Yorkshireman and a Methodist, 
who came to Upper Canada in 1819, and began to 
teach school the same year in Scarboro, remaining 
here for twelve months. He next taught in King for 
four months, when he was appointed to take charge of 

Schools and Teachers. 195 

the Common School in the town of York, where, after 
managing the school most satisfactorily for a year, 
the trustees. Dr. T. D. Morrison, Jesse Ketchum and 
Jordan Post, came into collision with the " Honorable 
and Venerable Dr. Strachan," whom Eobert G-ourlay 
characterized as a " monstrous little fool of a parson." 
Dr. Strachan, in the name and on behalf of Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Maitland, but quite illegally neverthe- 
less, applied to the trustees for the school-house, in 
which he purposed placing a Mr. Spragg, whom he had 
brought from England to conduct a " national," i.e., 
a Church of England school, on the Bell, or moni- 
torial system. This application having been refused 
by the trustees, payment of Mr. Appleton's services 
ceased, on the plea that the legislative grant had 
been too much decreased to warrant the expenditure, 
although Mr. Appleton, with the consent of the trus- 
tees, continued to officiate for several years. Eemon- 
strances, petitions and memorials were unavailing ; 
but, with "John Bull" persistency, the ousted dominie 
maintained his claim for remuneration. Applications 
made to the Home District Board of Education were 
not even replied to, and no satisfaction could be 
obtained until the case was referred to a committee of 
the Legislature, which reported on the 18th of March, 
1835, " That eighty -five pounds four shillings be paid 
to Thomas Appleton, teacher of the Common School 
of this place, in the years 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1826 
and 18-27, for public moneys due to liim, and withheld 
by the Board of Education, and for the interest accru- 
ing thereon." This, report was signed by Wm. Lyon 
Mackenzie, David Gibson, Thomas D. Morrison and 
Charles Waters. 

196 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

We have the case of Mr. Appleton to thank for the 
abohtion of the old Provincial Board of Education, 
and for bringing to an end the efforts that had been 
so long and so determinedly made, to fasten on this 
Province, sectarian Protestant schools.* 

The great difficulty of procuring exact information 
with regard to school affairs is a cause of regret. Too 
frequently the secretary of the board performs his 
duties carelessly, the minutes being either unrecorded, 
or recorded only on loose sheets of paper. Even when 
books are kept, they are liable to be lost or mislaid, as 
changes take place in the board of trustees ; and it is 
quite certain that this condition of things is not nearly 
so bad in Scarboro as in many other townships, where 
those in office have been, and are, less qualified to 
perform the necessary clerical labor. 

The suggestion is here made that inspectors should 
be instructed by the Minister of Education to examine 
the minute-book of each school board at least once a 
year, preferably, perhaps, as soon as possible after the 
annual public meeting, and to make such suggestions 
as may be deemed necessary for the purpose of main- 
taining correct records. This course would ensure 
transference of all documents from old to new officials, 
and minute-books out of date, or filled up, should be 
deposited in the county registry office, or in some 
other place of security. 

* Numerous references to the Appleton case will be found in the first 
two volumes of the " Documentaiy History of Education in Upper Canada," 
by J. George Hodgins. M. A., LL.D.. Barrister-at-law, Librarian and His- 
toriographer to the Education Department of Ontario, Toronto, 1894. 

Public Libraries. 197 


" Books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a progenj' of life 
in tlieni to be as active as that soul whose progeny they are ; nay, they da 
preserve, as in a vial, the purest efficacy and extraction of that living 
intellect that bred them." — John Milton. 


JUST thirty-eight years after the cutting of the 
first tree, many of the pioneers having passed 
from the scene with the disappearance of the 
forest, a somewhat unusual and highly creditable 
movement in a purely rural community was success- 
fully carried out. Perhaps without exception, every 
one of the "Fathers of the Settlement " had received, 
at least, a good elementary education either in the Old 
Land, whence most of them came, or in the United 
States, from which arrived a few representatives of 
the United Empire Loyalists. It has already been 
shown how heartily, and how self-sacrificingly, the 
original occupiers set themselves to the task of pro- 
viding such schools as were possible in those days. 

Most of the original settlers would have regarded 
with wonder the proposal to enact any law or regula- 
tion in favor of compulsory attendance at school, 
other than the. parental form of it, to which they 
themselves had been subjected, and which, no doubt, 
ithey sometimes exercised oyer their Canadian off- 

198 History of the Towns?up of Scarboro. 

Now that sons and daughters of the " first families " 
became the parents of a new generation, they craved 
for mental food of a quality superior to that supplied 
by the text-books and by the weekly newspaper. Dr. 
George Birkbeck, in Great Britain, had shown the 
practicability of establishing libraries for the use of 
mechanics, and the movement was in its prime during 
the first half of this century. It is not unlikely that 
the yeomen of Scarboro were thus influenced, to some 
extent ; but whatever the moving cause may have 
been, it is to their infinite credit that, on the 7th of 
April, 1834, a meeting was held in St. Andrew's 
Church to organize a public library, which continued 
to be known as the Scarboro Subscription Library for 
a period of forty-four years, until, in 1878, it was 
incorporated as a Mechanics' Institute under the 
Ontario Act. 

The first meeting, which would appear to have been 
as harmonious as it was well attended, resulted in the 
election of E. D. Hamilton, M.D., as President ; 
Eobert Hamilton, Yice-President ; Wm. Elliot, Treas- 
urer ; Arch. Glendinning, Secretary, and James A. 
Thomson, Librarian. Besides these, there were en- 
rolled as members, the Eev. James George, Thomas 
Paterson, Andrew Johnston, William Glendinning, 
Simeon Thomson, Prancis Johnston, Wm. D. Thom- 
son, Jon. Thom, John Gibson, S. Cornell, Christopher 
Thomson, J. Brownlie, Wm. Forfar, jun., Wm. Pat- 
erson, George Scott, David Brown, Thomas Brown, 
Wm. Hood, John Muir, Adam Bell, John Stobo, Dr. 
D. Graham, J. Davidson, J. Findlay, John Elliot, 
John Tingle, Alex. Jackson, Andrew Paterson, Thos. 
Whiteside, John Martin, George Thomson, John 

Public Libraries. 199 


Glendinning, John Thornbeck, Daniel Ferguson, Mar- 
shal Macklin, Ebbert Tackett, Wm. Crone, T. Walton, 
sen., Wm. Findlay, Wm. Scott and J. Carmichael — a 
goodly number for a beginning, even where the popu- 
lation is comparatively dense at the present day ; but 
here we find forty-six persons, chiefly farmers, living 
in some instances, as a matter of course, miles apart, 
uniting, more than half a century ago, to place them- 
selves and their families in touch with the best 
thoughts of the best literary and scientific writers of 
that time and of past time. 

In addition to the ofiicers already named, a com- 
mittee of twelve was appointed to manage the affairs 
of the library, and among the regulations they laid 
dowQ we find that members were required to pay an 
entrance fee of five shillings (currency, presumably), 
■and the same amount annually, in two payments, each 
half-yearly, in advance ; and that a general meeting 
should be held half-yearly to choose "managers," 
examine books, and arrange for the purchase of new 
volumes. Each member was privileged to recommend 
the purchase of a book, but the decision was to be the 
result of a majority vote, and " no book of a seditious, 
deistical, or licentious character was to be allowed on 
-the shelves, on any pretence whatever." Sedition and 
deism were terms which, sixty or seventy years ago, 
, possessed a much wider range of application than they 
do to-day ; and we can readily understand the solici- 
tude and the horror that actuated the people of 1834 
in their desire to preserve themselves from the very 
taint of disloyalty to Creator or to king, when we bear 
in mind that Voltairism, on the one hand, and repub- 
licanism, on the other, were openly advocated in many 

200 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

quarters. In Canada, Eobert Gourlay had done much 
to unsettle public political opinion. William Lyon 
Mackenzie and Dr. Papineau were not throwing oil on 
the troubled waters ; and as the men of Scarboro were 
all true Britons to the core, nothing could be more 
reasonable than that literature of the tendencies in 
question should be excluded from the library ! 

For fifty years the membership averaged forty- 
seven, and now stands at seventy — than which it 
would be difficult to adduce better proof regarding 
the uniformly judicious management of the library, 
and the steady, highly intelligent character of the 

Although incorporated, as already mentioned, in 
1878, it received no public aid until 1880, when a 
government grant of $400 and a municipal grant of 
$25 enabled the committee to make considerable 
additions to their catalogue, which now contains the 
titles of about four thousand volumes. The circula- 
tion amounts to 2,775 per annum, or an average of 
nearly thirty-three volumes to each member, and it is 
worthy of observation that the percentage of fiction is 
extremely low. 

Some of the old minute books having been lost or 
mislaid, it is impossible to follow the record consecu- 
tively ; but it is known that Jas. A. Thomson was 
president in 1860, perhaps also previous to that date, 
and continued in office until 1878, when Jos. Latter 
was elected, and held the position till 1888. David 
Martin was appointed president from 1888 to 1891, 
when he was succeeded by A. W. Forfar in 1892, and 
by Wm. Carrnichael in 1893. Mr. Carmichael is still 
in office. Among those who have acted as secretaries 

Public Libraries. 201 

may be mentioned G. M. Jacques, from 1875 to 1881 ; 
Henry Thomson, from that date until 1891 ; David 
Martin, till 1893 ; and D. W. Thomson, the present 
efficient secretary. 

At the time of incorporation, upon careful examina- 
tion, the library was found to contain 1,108 volumes in 
good condition, classified as follows : Biography, 124 ; 
History, 144 ; Fiction, 177 ; Works of Eeference, 28 ; 
Literature, 131; Eeligious, 210; Travels, 121; Science 
and Philosophy, 77 ; Poetry and the Drama, 35*; Mis- 
cellaneous, 61. 

Since incorporation the number of volumes has 
increased to 3,651, classified under the following 
heads : Biography, 324 ; History, 382 ; Fiction, 874 ; 
Literature, 319; Science and Philosophy, 336 ; Travels, 
363 ; Eeligious, 528 ; Miscellaneous, 382 ; Poetry and 
the Drama, 79 ; Eeference, 65. 

Number of volumes issued during the year ending 
April 30th, 1896: Biography, 120; History, 192; 
Fiction, 1,112; Literature, 639; Science and Phil- 
osophy, 78; Travels, 77; Eeligious, 338; Miscellan- 
eous, 173 ; Poetry and the Drama, 40 ; Eeference, 6. 

Total issue, 2,775 ; number of members, 85. 

Board of Management for current year: President, 
William Carmichael; Vice-President, George Elliot; 
Treasurer, David Martin ; Secretary, David W. Thom- 
son ; Librarian, John Buchanan. 

Directors : Eobert Martin, John Parsell, Joseph 
Tingle, Isaac Chester, Archibald W. Forfar. 

In 1846 a small frame library building was erected 
near St. Andrew's Church, and within a short distance 
of the spot on which David Thomson cut down the 
first tree. Although this unpretentious-looking little 


202 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

structure has answered an admirable purpose for half a 
century, it has long since ceased to be worthy of the 
treasures it contains, or to afford the accommodation 
required, and it is now certain that a new and com- 
modious brick structure will be provided on a neigh- 
boring site nearer to the church and on the opposite 
side of the road. An edifice of this kind for such a 
use is one of which any community should be proud ; 
the best situation in the locality is not too good for it, 
and there is little doubt that all will unite to make 
the new building worthy of its purpose, and to main- 
tain the high state of efficiency so long held by the 
Scarboro Library. 

As this goes to press, the building, a commodious 
structure 26 x 36 feet, is in course of erection, and 
will probably be completed in time to be inaugurated 
during the centennial, June 17th and 18th. The 
walls are of brick, on a stone foundation, and the 
edifice, though plain in exterior, will be commodious 
and attractive within, and must prove a source of 
much pleasure and a little pride to the patrons of 
the library. Mr. Carnaghan, Chairman of the Build- 
ing Committee, has made himself most commendably 
active in his efforts to complete the erection. 


At the present day, owing to the vast number of 
newspapers, magazines and periodicals of various kinds, 
the want of books is not so likely to be felt as when 
there was a dearth of literature, and it is an evidence 
of a desire for something more substantial than mere 
news gossip, and monthly doles of from second or third 
to tenth-rate stories, when people feel the want of 

Public Libraries. 203 

liigh.-class books, including works of reference, history, 
biography, science and travel. Actuated by this spirit, 
and no do-ubt fully aware of the advantages so long 
possessed by tkeir up-stream neighbors, the residents 
of the eastern side qf the township resolved to estab- 
lish a Mechanics' Institute Library, entitled to a 
" legislative grant per annum." A meeting of pro- 
minent persons was accordingly held at Highland 
Creek in December, 1889, when it was decided to ask 
for incorporation, and an active committee was ap- 
pointed to canvass the neighborhood for subscribers at 
$1 per annum. Fifty-five names were procured, and 
on January 28th, 1890, the Institute was incorporated. 
The first annual meeting was held in Elliot's Hall, on 
Tuesday, the 13th of February following, when there 
were elected : Wm. Tredway, President ; Eobert 
Cowan, Vice-President ; Henry Westney, Secretary- 
Treasurer ; A. J. Law and T. C. Kirkham, Librarians ; 
Chas. Humphrey, T. G. Parker, A. T. Elliot, J. H. 
Richardson, James Duncan, B. F. Closson, J. W. 
Stanion and L. Lewis, Directors ; Arthur Eeeve, sen., 
and James Pratt, Auditors. 

The available funds were not large, consisting of 
$110, of which $25 was a grant from the Township 
Council, and $30 a donation from the Highland Creek 
Literary Society. On March 1, 1890, the Highland 
Creek Library was opened, and before the close of the 
year its membership numbered fifty-nine. 

Beginning with 167 well-selected volumes, additions 
have been made annually, until at this date there are 
upwards of one thousand books in the library, with a 
circulation of nearly two thousand. The following 
table shows its condition, as per official statement for 
the year ending April 1st, 1896 : 


History of the Township of Scarboro. 


Voyages and Travels . . 

History , 


Biography , 





Works of Reference . . . 

Total 166 

No. of Vole. 

No. of Vols. 

No. of Vols, 


in Stock. 


























, , 








Amount of money expended in books, $115.79; value of 
books in library, $758.30. 

Ben. F. Closson, President. 
A. T. Elliot, Sec.-Treas. 
Mark Taylor, Librarian. 

Doctors and Lawyers. 205 



" No one is more estimable than a physician who, having studied nature 
from his youth, knows the properties of the human body, the diseases 
which assail it, the remedies which will benefit it, exercises his art with 
caution, and pays equal attention to the rich and poor. " — Voltaire. 

" Just laws are no restraint upon the freedom of the good, for the good 
man desires nothing which just law will interfere with." — J. A. Froude. 

UNDER this heading we are hmited mainly to 
the medical men of the township, the few 
lawyers connected with it, either by birth or other 
reason, finding more profitable centres elsewhere. 

A very respectable list of medical practitioners, who 
have found Scarboro a desirable locality from an early 
period of its settlement, will engage our attention. 
Several are native to Scarboro, and of these a fitting 
opportunity serves at this juncture for giving their 
names, as well as the names of certain divines and 
lawyers who are, or were, sons of its soil. 

Among the medical men we find : Opie Sisley, M.D., 
CM.; Samuel R. Richardson, M.D. ; Jos. Richardson, 
M.D.; Samuel Richardson, M.D. ; Russell Taber,M.D.; 
Stephen Taber, M.D. ; Wm. Lapsley, M.D. ; Marshal 
Macklin, M.D., CM. ; David A. Clark, M.D., CM. ; 
William Irving, M.D., CM. 

Among the ministers : Revs. James Richardson, 
Ezekiel Richardson, J. J. Elliot, B.A., A. G. Bell, 
B.A., James Thom, and Albert D. Wheler. 

206 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Among the lawyers: John Bain, Q.C., Jas. Baird, 
B.A., G. W. Badgerow, T. A. Gibson, B.A., and 
John Thorn. 


In dealing with the medical men of Scarboro we find 
much that is not only characteristic of the men, but of 
the times to which they belonged, and certain of them 
demand a more enlarged notice than do those who, 
living in our own day, are governed by its convention- 

The township, as far as our records go, went on 
very well until 1829 without a resident doctor. At 
that date, E. D. Hamilton, M.D., a canny Scotsman 
from Lanarkshire, came over by way of New York 
to Ganada, settling in Scarboro on the Danforth 
Eoad, near Bunker's Hill, but afterwards residing 
with his brother-in-law, John Torrance, on lot 24, 
concession D. 

He was " a happy old bachelor who had loved and 
lost." Eather eccentric, and quite self-dependent, 
he could do his own cooking and mending, and sew 
on his own buttons. But notwithstanding his eccen- 
tricities, Scarboro loved him as she would a generous, 
noble-minded friend. He was at home everywhere, 
and used to say that no matter where the dinner-horn 
blew he knew there was a glad welcome for him. 

Dr. Hamilton was a highly educated man and a 
great reader. He was also a writer, and produced a 
work in two volumes, on the principles and practice 
of medicine on the plan of the Baconian philosophy, 
quoting from, and criticising freely the works of, 
Hippocrates, Galen, Newton, Cullen, Lavoisier, Aris- 
totle and Lord Bacon. Of some of the old writers 

Doctors and Lawyers. 207 

he quaintly said: " They have written on the loss of 
health in the same romantic style as Milton on the 
loss of Paradise." 

The stock of medicine carried by Dr. Hamilton, as 
compared with the present-day deluge of drugs, was 
very limited, consisting merely of a few powders 
stowed in his pockets, but a minimum assortment was 
balanced by a maximum dose. A pet nostrum of his, 
especially after bleeding, consisted of: calomel, 8 to 10 
grains, and antimonial powder, 5 to 6 grains, given 
in one bolus. An ardent advocate of purgatives, no 
argument convinced him that their use could by any 
possibility prove harmful. 

He had been an army surgeon, and had seen actual 
service at Corunna and in other engagements, and his 
army training, no doubt, accounted for his freedom with 
the lancet, and his advocacy of the then usual practice 
of bleeding, as a specific for " all the ills that flesh is 
heir to," especially diseases that were of an inflam- 
matory nature. 

It is told in this connection that on one occasion 
when old David Thomson had pneumonia. Dr. Hamil- 
ton bled him each day for nine consecutive days, taking 
at least a pint of the crimson fluid on each occasion. 
The hardy old pioneer not seeming to improve under 
this heroic treatment. Dr. Paterson, of Markham, was 
called in, in consultation, when they decided to bleed 
him again, making the tenth bleeding he had under- 
gone. The patient appearing no better, hope was 
abandoned, and the relatives were summoned to the 
bedside. But the story concludes with Thomson's 
recovery, and a four years' longer lease of life for the 

208 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

An odd tale is told of another of Scarboro's hardy 
sons who, having had his ear bitten off by a horse, 
took the severed member in his pocket, and walked 
a very long distance to consult Dr. Hamilton, who 
sucoessfally re-united the parts. 

As the worthy old doctor never kept a horse, he 
had to be sent for, and taken home — generally on 
horseback — the messenger mounting with the doctor, 
or walking behind. It is said the horse was never put 
beyond a walk, however urgent the case. 

He was conservative both in medicine and politics, 
and under the name of " Gruy Pollock"* wrote some 
pungent articles in the city papers. 

He died in 1857, at the age of fifty-seven years, and 
was buried in St. Andrew's graveyard, being put, 
according to his own request, twelve feet under ground. 
In his panegyric at the grave the Rev. J. Bain said of 
him, that he " was the beloved physician, the beloved 
of the country-side." 

The next medical man to settle in Scarboro was Dr. 
G-raham, who came to the township in 1834, and took 
up his abode at G-ates's Hotel. He also was a Scots- 
man, from Lanarkshire, and, like Dr. Hamilton, lived a 
life of celibacy. He was of fair complexion, of a fine 
physique, tall, erect and athletic, with a prepossessing 
countenance and a courtly manner. He was very fond 
of sport, and kept a blood-horse, being in his element 
in a race, or in hot chase after a fox. 

Dr. Graham's loyalty and conservative principles 
took him out as a volunteer in 1837. After the rout 
at Montgomery's Tavern, he, as did others, helped 

*Guy Pollock, whose name Dr. Hamilton assumed, was a contentious 
blacksmith, but not at all of a literary turn. Reference is made to him in 
Chapter IX., Trades and Tradesmen. 

Doctors and Lawyers. 209 

himself to one of the horses left behind by the "rebels." 
He was then boarding with a Mr. Lawrie, of the op- 
posite political stripe, who, on learning the facts of the 
case, would not allow the horse in his stable, nor the 
doctor to remain under his roof. 

In his profession Dr. Graham was skilful and much 
liked ; he was not so ardent an advocate of the lancet 
as his brother-physician, though he by no means 
neglected its use. 

He died at a comparatively early age in 1847, and 
was buried in St. Andrew's graveyard, where a modest 
little monument marks the spot. 

In 1842, or about that year. Dr. Winstanley took 
up his residence in Scarboro. He was an Englishman, 
and the son of an English Church clergyman who 
held a living in this province (some say in Scarboro 
township). The Winstanleys were of an aristocratic 
family, and the doctor was the first of his profession 
in Scarboro to keep a handsome turn-out, which con- 
sisted of an English dogcart and a fine horse in 
English harness. Like Dr. Graham, he was fond of 
hunting and sports in general, for which there were 
plenty of opportunities in the township at that period. 

Dr. Winstanley remained in Scarboro but a short 
time, removing to Yonge Street, not far from Toronto. 
But he was fond of the beautiful scenery of the 
Heights, and built a delightful summer cottage on 
the acclivity a little west of Victoria Park, where he 
spent his summers for many years before failing health 
confined him to his town residence, where he died. 

Dr. Hipkins, who came to Scarboro about 1849, was 
of English extraction. He established an excellent 
practice during the four years of his stay, and was 
very popular. He removed to Toronto. 

210 History of the Township or Scarboro. 

Dr. Bain was born in Kirkaldy, Scotland, his father 
being Eev. Jas. Bain, of St. Andrew's Church, Scar- 
boro. He began practice under his father's roof about 
1856, but left the township about a year afterwards, 
and died at an early age. 

Dr. Baker, who came to Scarboro about 1853, was a 
Canadian, and graduated from the Medical Board of 
Upper Canada, his degree being signed and sealed at 
Quebec by the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, on the 
26th April, 1853. The same year, in the pleasant 
month of June, he married Emily, the widow of 
Francis Earls, of Toronto, and commenced prac- 
tice. Dr. Baker is said to have been the first medical 
man in Scarboro to carry a medicine case. 

Six weeks subsequent to the birth of her first child 
(a son, who survived both father and mother, dying in 
England in 1889), Mrs. Baker died, and shortly after- 
wards Dr. Baker went to New York Hospital and took 
a two years' post-graduate course. Keturning, he 
practised in Toronto and Scarboro until shortly before 
his death, September 25th, 1861. 

Dr. Harvie, who settled in Scarboro about 1857, 
was an American 'who had formerly taken up his 
abode in Durham County, Ont., practising at Ennis- 
killen, Darlington township. He stayed but a short 
time in Scarboro. 

Dr. William Lapsley, a Scarboro boy who now re- 
sides in Toronto, carrying on a consulting and office 
practice, is a graduate of Toronto School of Medicine. 
In 1861 he settled at Woburn, in his native township, 
where he practised for twenty-seven years and estab- 
lished a fine connection, besides making a number of 
warm friends. In 1888 he went to Toronto, where he 

Doctors and Lawyers. 211 

is frequently referred to as consulting physician. One 
of his sons is also a member of the medical profession. 

Dr. Lorenzo Dow Closson, who was born near 
Chautauqua, N.Y., in 1829, was the successor of 
Dr. Hamilton, by whose influence it was that he 
received the appointment of surgeon to the 3rd 
Battalion of York militia. He has filled the respon- 
sible offices of coroner for the united counties of 
York and Peel, and medical health of6.cer for the 
township of Scarboro. For upwards of forty years 
he practised in Scarboro and its vicinity, until his 
naturally strong constitution gave way under the 
continued strain of a large and laborious practice, 
and he was obliged to retire. Since then Dr. Closson 
has resided in Toronto, his elder son. Dr. John H. 
Closson, being in practice in that city. Dr. Closson's 
name is still a household word in Scarboro ; no other 
physician ever spent so long a period in the prac- 
tice of his profession in the township, and probably 
none whose time and talents were more cordially 
devoted to her welfare. 

Dr. John Closson, an elder brother of the former, 
also practised here for several years, during the same 

Dr. Duncan James Pollock came to the township 
in the first year of the American civil war, 1862. He 
was a son ot Charles Pollock, of Hamilton, Ont., and 
settled at EUesmere, occupying a brick cottage on 
the 1st concession. He was a bachelor, and his sister 
kept house for him. He commenced the practice of 
his profession very young, notwithstanding which 
he soon became popular, and his practice rapidly 
extended throughout Scarboro, and into the town- 

212 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

ships of York and Markham. He was also coroner 
of York township. 

Dr. Pollock was an enthusiastic curler, and a mem- 
ber of the Ellesmere Club, and was at one time its 

After about twenty years of residence in what half 
a century had made a populous township, the heavy 
labor of a rural practice began to tell on him seriously, 
and he retired to a less arduous field in Toronto ; but, 
owing to a long period of overwork, an organic disease 
was developed which ended his bright career at a 
comparatively early age. He died in the south on 
the 26th November, 1879. 

Dr. Samuel E. Eichardson was born in Scarboro. 
He practised for a short time on the Markham Eoad, 
near Woburn, about 1882. He spent two years as 
assistant superintendent of the Toronto Asylum, for 
the Insane, under Dr. Joseph Workman, the most 
distinguished of Canadian alienists, and was for two 
years professor of materia medica and therapeutics, 
and lecturer on diseases of the mind and nervous 
system in Victoria Medical School. Dr. Eichardson 
has been in Eglinton for upwards of sixteen years. 

Peter McDiarmid, M.D., born in the Ottawa Yalley, 
began his medical profession in 1866, having selected 
Scarboro as his field of practice, choosing Malvern as 
his place of residence. Dr. McDiarmid succeeded Dr. 
Pollock, and continued his practice with marked suc- 
cess for four years (1871 to 1876). As a man he 
gained the respect and confidence of the community. 
His removal to the States was deeply regretted by his 
numerous friends. 

One of the few medical men who have spent a quar- 
ter of a century in the practice of their profession in 

Doctors and Lawyers. 213 

Scarboro, is Dr. Duncan McDiarmid, elder brother of 
the last named. A man of a modest, unassumhig 
manner, and of a kind and sympathetic nature, he 
wins the love and respect of his patients, and his 
opinion is commonly looked upon as final, so com- 
pletely do they trust his professional judgment. Dr. 
McDiarmid was born near Ottawa, and came to Scar- 
boro in 1870, where he is still active, hale and hearty. 

Dr. William Irving, now of St. Mary's, was born in 
Scarboro in 1847. He taught school in section No. 2, 
and graduated at Trinity Medical College in 1874. 
He practised for a time in East Toronto, and subse- 
quently in his native township, when he removed to 
Exeter, and afterwards to Kirkton. He has been in 
St. Mary's for eight years, and now enjoys a lucrative 
practice. He is an active politician, and is President 
of the Perth County Reform Association. Dr. Irving 
is credited with the belief that Ontario is the finest 
country in the world, and that Scarboro is by all odds 
the best township in Ontario. 

Drs. Joseph and Samuel Richardson, the younger 
brothers of John Richardson, M.P.P. for East York, 
both enjoy lucrative practices, the former in Chicago, 
and the latter in Strathroy, Ont. 

Dr. Hunter came here in 1888, settling at Woburn. 
His practice extended mainly toward the eastern part 
of the township and about Highland Creek, where he 
enjoyed a large patronage. He was a man of con- 
siderable ability. He left Scarboro in 1890. 

Dr. George Robert Cruikshank was born at Weston, 
York County. He entered upon practice at Ellesmere 
in 1886, but after four years left to take a post-graduate 
course at Edinburgh. ' Returning to Canada, Dr. 
Cruikshank settled in Windsor, where he now resides. 

214 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Opie Sisley, M.D., CM., was born in Scarboro in 
1863. Matriculating in Arts in Toronto University, 
he entered at the same time the Toronto School of 
Medicine, graduating in 1888 and becoming a Licenti- 
ate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Ontario the following year. He first settled at EUes- 
mere, but moved to Agincourt in 1894, where he still 
resides. For four years Dr. Sisley has been coroner 
for the County of York and medical health officer for 
the township of Scarboro. 

Dr. Clapp is the latest addition to the long line of 
illustrious physicians who have taken up residence in 
Scarboro township during the century that has elapsed 
since the first opening was made in the mighty forest. 
He came to the township in 1893, and settled at Scar- 
boro village, where his health has materially improved, 
and he is able to attend to a good practice. More 
fortunate than the majority of his brethren in the 
profession, Dr. Clapp enjoys a private income, and in 
the season is able to indulge his fondness for hunting 
in the wilds of Muskoka, or the solitudes of Nipissing. 


Thomas Alexander Gibson, B.A., youngest son of 
John Gibson, born June 22nd, 1866, studied at Mark- 
ham High School and Toronto Collegiate Institute, 
matriculating at Toronto University in 1884 with first 
scholarship for general proficiency. Graduated with 
highest honors in classics in 1888, and at once entered 
upon the study of law with the firm of Fullerton, Cook 
& Co. Called to the bar in 1891, and formed a part- 
nership with W. E. Cavell, under the firm name of 
Cavell & Gibson, with offices at 43 Adelaide Street 

Doctors and Lawyers. 215 

East, Toronto, where he continues the practice of his 

Matthew A. Hall is a Scarboro boy, who has won 
considerable success as a lawyer in Omaha, Neb., 
where he is partner in one of the principal legal firms 
in the city. Pew men in the state are considered 
capable of rendering a sounder qr more profound 
opinion on matters of law than he is, and his reputa- 
tion as an honest lawyer is equal to his fame as a 
counsellor. Mr. Hall is one of the many young men 
that we are proud to connect with our township. 

John Bain was the son of Kev. James Bain, of Old 
St. Andrew's Church. He was called to the bar in 
the Province of Ontario, in the year 1866, and 
appointed Queen's Counsel in the year 1887. Mr. 
Bain was solicitor for the Imperial Bank and other 
large corporations, and had a large and influential 
practice. He died at the age of forty-six, in the 
year 1893. 

G-eorge Washington Badgerow was born May 28th, 
1841, in the township of Markham, but spent much 
of his early life here, assisting his father in the 
management of a woollen mill, on lot 16, concession 
2. At the Markham High School, where he ranked 
as the best student, he qualified for a public school 
teacher, and having secured a situation he walked 
eighteen miles twice a week after school-hours to 
take lessons in the higher departments from a tutor. 
He studied law in Toronto, and was called to the bar 
in 1871. He represented East Eiding of York in the 
Local Legislature as a Liberal from the year 1879 to 
1887, and was appointed County Crown Attorney for 
the county in 1887. Mr. Badgerow was an enthusi- 

216 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

astic member of the United Workmen order, of which 
he was Grand Master for two years ; Supreme Over- 
seer in 1884, Supreme Foreman in 1885, and Supreme 
Master Workman of the A.O.U.W. of America, in 
1886. He died 31st of July, 1892. 

James Baird, a member of the firm of Lobb and 
Baird, was born in Scarboro village. He is a son of 
Jonathan Baird, who formerly kept hotel near the 
Grand Trunk Railway, in the village. He received 
his early education in S. S. No. 9, and went to 
Toronto Collegiate Institute in 1876, Toronto Uni- 
versity in 1878, and graduated with the degree of 
B.A. in 1882, was called to the bar in 1885, and is 
now practising lav^^ in Toronto in the above firm. 

John Thorn, a Toronto lawyer, is also said to have 
been born in this township. 

Societies. 217 


"To understand man, however, we must look beyond the individual 
man, and his action or interests, and view him in combination with his 
fellows. " — GaHyle. 

THE records of the various societies that have 
existed in Scarboro township from time to time, 
are not so full as could be desired, but such as we are 
able to give are most creditable to the moral sentiment 
of the township. 

The first temperance society of which we have 
record, was instituted in 1834 in what is now School 
Section No. 5, by the Eev. James George, minister 
of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. The following 
is a partial list of the members: David Elliot, Walter 
Elliot, James A. Thomson, Adam Bell, Agnes Mc- 
Levin, Margaret Eeeve, Margaret Elliot, Thomas 
White, William Forfar, jun., Wm. Paterson, Mary 
Johnston, Margaret Glendinning, Catharine Bowes, 
Ellen Elliot, Agnes Bell, Teasdale Hall, Hugh Elhot, 
Thos. Paterson, Sophia Durham, Jane Eeeve, Matilda 
Elliot, and Thos. Bell. 

In S. S. No. 2, the first " regular " temperance 
organization was that of Mount Meldrum Division 
Sons of Temperance, instituted in 1855, on lot 24, 
concession 1. 

It is still in a most flourishing condition, and has 
been a great power for good in building up a sound 


218 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

temperance sentiment in the community. Its numer- 
ous members, past and present, have carried its 
principles to almost every part of our Dominion. 

The present place of meeting is Temperance Hall, 
Agincourt, lot 24, concession 3. 

Its charter members were : John D. Thomson, 
David Gr. Thomson, James Elliot, Archibald A. 
Thomson, Andrew A. Thomson, Eichard Eyan, 
Thomas A. Little, Samuel Harvey, James Scott, 
Archibald Elliot, Thomas Scott. 

In 1862 Scarboro village had a Temperance Society 
Building, but no further record has been furnished. 

School Section No. 2 can boast of a camp of the 
Sons of Scotland at Agincourt. Its charter mem- 
bers are William Johnston, John Johnston, James 
F. Elliot, David Wyper, Alexander Weir, James T. 
Stewart, William Docherty, Alex. Docherty, William 
Anderson, Wm. Green, J. Irwin, Wm. Crawford, John 
Chisholm, John Elliot, Joseph Irwin, George Baxter, 
Francis Weir, Wm. B. Davidson, John Martin, J. C. 
Angus, E. Craig, James Ogg, D. McDiarmid, M.D., 
Eev. J. A. Brown and Wm. Thomson. 

Court Highland Creek, No. 1089, I.O.F., was insti- 
tuted in June, 1892, with the following staff of officers: 
A. T. Elliot, C.D.H.C.E.; James Duncan, C.E.; W. 
J. Morrish, Y.C.E.; J. E. Dale, M.D., Phy.; W- H. 
Closson, Fin.-Sec; W. Stitts, S.W.; E. Parker, S.B.; 
W. H. Tredway, P.C.E.; John Plaxton, Chaplain; 
Eobt. Cowan, Treas.; Henry Eeeve, Eec.-Sec; David 
Mosher, J.W.; James Atkinson, J.B. The court 
commenced with a charter membership of twenty-one 
and has had a steady growth ever since, having-lbr its 

Societies. 219 

members the best citizens of the locality. Among 
the recently initiated brethren are Eev. John Chis- 
holm and Chas. A. Drummond, M.D., the latter being 
elected as associate physician. There has not been a 
death in the Court since its commencement, and the 
applications for sick benefits have been very few. All 
the work is carried on in the name of Liberty, Benevo- 
lence and Concord, meeting fourth Tuesday of each 
month in Elliot's Hall. 

There are three brass bands in the township : 

Highland Creek Band, the members of which are J. 
Thorne, A. Collins, J. Gormley, A. Law, E. Collins, Geo. 
Sprunt, W. Bennet, A. Neilson, and C. Humphrey. 

Scarboro Village Brass Band, the members being 
W. Collier, F. Secor, Geo. Sprunt, E. Cornell, J. 
Cornell, J. Mcllmurray, J. Eawcett, J. Hammond, 
J. Chester, A. Taylor, and W. Miller. 

Ellesmere Band, named the " Maple Leaf," includes 
W. Glendinhing, Sidney Thomson, T. Whiteside, F. 
Bell, Eichard Thomson, J. M. Thomson, Andrew 
Paterson, John Walton, Albert Mason, — Loveless, 
and Harry Thomson. 

There is a Mouth Organ Band at Malvern, consist- 
ing of A. Callender, C. Callender, W. Bennet, Andrew 
Thomson, J. Clayton, E. Willis. 

Another organization of a similar kind has recently 
been formed at Agincourt with a numerous member- 
ship, of which the leader is J. Dixon; Sec.-Treas., 
W. Young ; President, N. White ; and the players, J. 
Dixon, and W. Bennett (on the guitar), W. Gorman, 
W. Paterson, E. Heron, E. Johnston, J. Kennedy, 
W. Bennett, J. A. Johnston, S. Shedlock, L. Thom- 
son, and L. Glendinning (on, the mouth organ). 

220 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


" Whoe'er has travel'd life's dull round, 
Where'er his stages may have been, 
May sigh to think he still has found 
The warmest welcome at an inn." 

— Shenstone. 

" What is true of a shopkeeper is true of a shopkeeping nation." 

— Tucker, Dean of Gloucester. 

PUBLIC-HOUSES during the pioneer days were 
places of very considerable importance. Many 
farmers on well-travelled roads turned an honest penny 
by providing " entertainment for man and beast." In 
most cases liquor was supplied, but not always. Among 
the first hosts in the township were David Thomson, 
Levi Annis and Jonathan Gates. The inn of the last- 
named was a noted stopping-place on the Kingston 
Eoad for many years, and on two occasions was 
thought to be of sufficient importance for circus exhi- 
bitions.* But besides the respectable hostleries, such 
as those mentioned, there were found at short inter- 
vals along the leading roads numerous places where 
whiskey might be procured ; whiskey, too, on which 
had been paid neither duty to make, nor license to sell. 
About 1831, and no doubt for many years both before 

"'■A wild beast show and circus was exhibited at Gates's in 1843 ; another 
in 1845. 

Public-houses and Stores. 221 

and after that date, there is said to have been no 
fewer than twenty-four houses between Highland 
Creek and Pickering where whiskey could be had. 

In 1835 Mr. John Bell, who came to Scarboro about 
1820, from Durham, Eng., and settled on lot 29, con- 
cession C, erected the "Blue Bell Inn," which soon 
acquired a high reputation. After the building of the 
Nipissing Railway this famous old hostlery ceased to 
pay, and was pulled down about 1876. 

Hockridge's Hotel, nearly two miles farther north, 
was built about the same time, but was opened slightly 
before the " Blue Bell." The building was destroyed 
by fire about 1878, but had ceased to be a hotel eight 
or ten years before. 

In the fall of 1847, Eichard Sylvester commenced 
hotel-keeping on the south-west corner of lot 34, con- 
cession 1. Ten years later Mr. Sylvester moved the 
building to the north-east corner of lot 35, concession 
D. The hotel business was discontinued in 1870, 
and in 1872 the house became the property of John 
Tingle, who forthwith moved his stock-in-trade into 
it, and in April of that year opened the old bar as 
a general store. 

Elliot's Inn was on the Kingston Road, not far from 
where St. Margaret's Church now stands. 

Mr. Moffat kept a hotel on the south-west corner of 
lot 35, concession C. This place was known as "The 
Eoyal Oak." 

Another noted hostlery was the " Painted Post," on 
the Danforth Eoad, near the Scarboro and York town- 

Sixty years ago the " William Wallace Inn" was 
kept by John Muir, on lot 16, on the old Kingston 

222 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Eoad, and abont the same time a beer-shop and store 
stood on the road opposite the old log school-house 
between lots 18 and 19 on the south side. The 
owner of this place was Wm. Burton. 

Mape's Inn on the Markham Eoad is mentioned in 
the municipal records of the Home District for 1849. 
But the first hotel between Toronto and Markham is 
said to have been kept by Eichard Taylor on the Dan- 
forth Eoad, lot 26 (no concession is named). 

John Malcolm's tavern, " Speed the Plough," was 
on the Markham Eoad, lot 19, concession 2. 

Eobert Malcolm succeeded him, and also kept a 
harness shop on his fifty-acre farm, early in the 
" fifties," but gave up the business about 1856. 

Sisley's hotel was on lot 23, concession D, on the 
place known as Bunker Hill. 

Dowswell's (now Woburn) was on lot 18, conces- 
sion 1. 


A Mrs. Betsy Stafford is said to have been the first 
storekeeper in the township on the Pioneer Thomson 
farm, within a stone-throw of St. Andrew's Church 
and the Public Library ; and - it is thought that a 
store, opened in S. S. No. 8 about 1843, by Paul 
Sheppard, on lot 35, concession D, was the next. 
Sheppard was succeeded by Samuel Blackburn. This 
store was discontinued about 1846. 

J. J. McBeth opened a store at Wexford in 1865, 
and gave up business in 1879. In 1865 John Tingle 
also opened a store at Wexford. 

Wm. Burton kept a small store on the south side 
of the Kingston Eoad, opposite the school-house be- 
tween lots 18 and 19. 

Villages and Post-offices. 223 


" I visit such tranquil spots always with infinite delight.'' 

— Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

"The post is the grand connecting link of all transactions, of all nego- 
tiations. Those who are absent, by its means become present ; it is the 
consolation of life." — Voltaire. 

THE selection of place-names by Euro-Americans 
is nearly always a matter of caprice, without 
the remotest reference to topography, hence the curi- 
ous jumble presented by the names of post-offices in 
Scarboro, although it is in this respect not so bad as 
are many other townships. 

In Agincourt, Armadale, Ellesmere, and Wexford, 
there is no court, no dale, no mere, or no ford (fiord). 
In the hybrid Bendale, the ben is missing. Other post- 
offices are Brown's Corners, Malvern, Woburn, Dan- 
forth. Highland Creek, West Hill, Wexford, Scarboro 
Junction, and Scarboro. Among all these names are 
represented England, Scotland, Ireland, and France, 
without any degree of propriety except in the two 
instances of West Hill and Highland Creek, although 
Danforth is allowable. 

It is not too much to expect that the General Post- 
office authorities may yet see the necessity of exercis- 
ing some measure of discretion in matters of this 
kind, and that they will give the preference to Indian 

224 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

names, or to English ones, which, if not characteristic 
of the localities, are at least less absurd than many 
already bestowed. 

Highland Greek village is one of the oldest commer- 
cial centres of the few extremely modest ones that 
ever existed in the township, owing to the proximity 
of Toronto. At the eastern intersection of the Dan- 
forth and Kingston roads, it was once of more compar- 
ative importance than it now is, although yet a point 
where considerable local traffic is maintained. A 
Catholic, a Methodist, and a Presbyterian church are 
situated at short distances of the point at which the 
roads cross each other. 

Wohurn possesses the town hall. 

Scarboro village comprises about forty acres, as 
shown on a plan registered in the registry office of the 
County of York, being the south-east part of lot 19, 
concession, D. The property was owned by Isaac 
Stoner, and sold by him in the fall of 1855, hy auction, 
in lots containing one-fifth of an acre up to one acre. 
Some choice quarter-acre lots sold as high as $428. 

The Grand Trunk Railway erected a station at this 
point, at which a large business was transacted in the 
shipment of flour and grain during the years 1856 to 
1859, when, in consequence of the heavy grade, the 
station was moved one mile farther west. Most of 
the lots have merged into farms and gardens. 

The chief buildings here are a brick school-house, 
the Methodist parsonage, a building for the sale of 
every description of farming implements, a general 
store, a blacksmith shop, and a few dwellings. 

The first post-office in the township was on lot 
19, concession D, the first postmaster having been 

Villages and Post-offices. 225 

Peter Secor, who held the position from the date 
of establishment in 1830, to 1838.* On the removal 
of the office to lot 17, concession D, Col. McLean 
became postmaster, and so continued until 1853. 
Other postmasters have been W. Tredway, Donald 
McLean, M. Kosebush, and the present official, J. 

It may be mentioned as an evidence of how facts 
may become merely matters of tradition in a com- 
paratively short time, that in the books of the Post- 
office Department at Ottawa, there is not a scrap 
of information pointing to the establishment of this 
office in 1830. Here, therefore, we are indebted to 
the memories of "oldest inhabitants" and to local 

Agincourt rejoices in having two railway stations — 
one on the Canadian Pacific, and the other on the 
Midland branch of the Grand Trunk. It is, next to 
Scarboro Junction, the most populous village in the 
township, and does a good local trade. 

Agincourt post-office was opened June 1st, 1858, 
the first postmaster having been John Hill, who was 
succeeded by John Miller, who was followed by J. W. 
Kennedy. The present postmaster is W. A. Kennedy. 

It is said that Mr. Hill, having made , many vain 
endeavors to get a post-office established here in con- 
nection with his general store, happened one day 
when in Ottawa (perhaps on this business) to meet 
a member of parliament representing a constituency 
in Quebec, where Mr. Hill originally came from. 
Asking Hill if he could do anything for him, the 
desirability of a post-office was mentioned. The 

* Mr. Secor's sympathy with Mackenzie was what led to this change. 

226 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

M.P. said at once, " I'll put that through for you, 
but you must let me give the office its name." 
Within a short time Mr, Hill was appointed post- 
master of Agincourt, pronounced locally Aigincourt, 
even the " t" being sounded. 

Danforth post-office was opened on April 1st, 1859. 
Henry Hogarth held the office of postmaster until his 
death, on April 16th, 1883, when his daughter Agnes 
was appointed. Miss Hogarth is still in charge. 

Scarboro Junction post-office was opened on July 
1st, 1873, George Taylor being in charge. He was 
succeeded by Eobert Davidson, on March 7th, 1876. 
He continued in office until February 20th, 1888, 
when the present postmaster, E. Bell, was appointed. 

A considerable area of farm land has been laid out 
at the Junction as village or town lots, most of which 
as yet forms only an extensive common. 

At this point the Midland branch of the Grand 
Trunk Eailway unites with the main line. 

Malvern has the largest public hall in the township, 
and here are held the principal political meetings in 
the district. With seating accommodation for 1,000 
persons, it is in frequent demand for lectures and 
concerts. During the curling season, the basement 
of the hall affords capital rink-space for the Scarboro 
Club. In this village also there are blacksmith, wag- 
gon, and harness shops. 

The other places are so small as to require no par- 
ticular notice here, containing as they do little more 
than the post-office, a small store, a blacksmith shop, 
and sometimes a church and a hotel. Numerous 
incidental references to these little centres occur in 
the foregoing chapters. 

Villages and Post-offices. 





Name of Post-office. 

Date of 

Name of 


June 1, 1858 .... 
April 1, 1869 .... 
April 1,1878.... 
September 1, 1888 
April 1, 1859 .... 

June 1, 1853 

July 6, 1852 

November 1, 1856 
(No record in P.O. 
July 1,1873 .... 

June 1, 1879 

March 1, 1865 . . . 
July 6, 1852 

John Hill. 


Robert Harrington. 
William Forfar. 


Brown's Corners .... 

David Brown. 
Henry Hogarth. 
A. Glendinning. 
— Chamberlain. 
David Brown. 


Highland Creek .... 
Malvern » 


Department, Ottawa) 
George Taylor, sen. 
John H. Richardson. 

Scarboro Junction . . . 
West Hill .'. 


J. T. McBeath. 

Woburn "1" 

Thos. Dowswell. 

The foregoing statement is from the department 
of the Postmaster-General, and may be considered, 
therefore, authoritative. 

Beginning with the oldest, the order of seniority is 
as follows: Scarboro, Highland Creek and Woburn, 
EUesmere, Malvern, Agincourt, Danforth, Wexford, 
Armadale, Scarboro Junction, Bendale, West Hill, 
and Brown's Corners. 

* Formerly Benlomond. 

t Formerly Elderslie. 

228 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


" Deeds Speak." 

—3rd Beg. York Militia Baniier, 1812. 

" O heard ye not of Queenston Heights — 
Of Brock who fighting fell — 
And of the Forty-ninth and York, 
Who 'venged their hero well ? " 

— Mrs. S. A. Curzon. 

UPON the declaration of war by the United States 
against Great Britain and her colonies on June 
M 18th, 1812, the men of Scarboro responded loyally to 
the call to arms. 

From a letter written by Colonel Chewett, 3rd Eegi- 
ment of York militia, to " Captain Thompson,"* in 
which reference is made to his company, in conjunc- 
tion with the Pickering and Whitby companies, we 
gather that the Scarboro men were attached to that 
regiment, and from the family records of the township 
^/ we know that they were with General Brock at 
Detroit, when Hull surrendered on August 16th, 1812. 
From Burlington Bay to the shores of Lake Erie the 
road lay through the forest ; but Brock's men were all 
volunteers and hardy woodsmen, accustomed to life in 
the New World and loyally devoted to the defence 
of their country. They often had to bake bread before 
they could have supper, when they halted for the 

*This is evidently meant for David Thomson, the pioneer. 


Militia. 229 

night. Many rolled the dough hastily together and 
covered it with hot ashes ; others, more patient and 
ingenious, impaled theirs on forked sticks, and setting 
them on end in' the ground close to the fire, turned 
the dough about until it was baked, their patience 
being rewarded by having lighter and cleaner bread 
than that baked in the ashes. 

Part of the way along the shores of Lake Erie before 
they reached Long Point, was narrow, and the waters 
of the lake so rough that it was often difficult for the 
men to avoid a wetting from the incoming waves. At 
one spot they were obliged to wait until they receded, 
and then run for a slightly wider margin before the 
succeeding swell could overtake them. General Brock, 
who was ever one with bis men, enduring the same 
trials and discomforts, tried when his turn came, to 
follow the example of the men, but, being less nimble, 
the wave caught and drenched him thoroughly. He, 
however, endured the soaking quite good-naturedly, 
and hurried on as though nothing had happened. 

The G-eneral embarked his men at Long Point in a 
number of small boats used by the settlers for the 
transport of their corn -and flour, and after four days 
and nights of incessant toil reached Amherstburg, a 
distance of two hundred miles. 

The passage was a stormy one, and the conduct of 
the men in the face of such difficulties won Brock's 

After the surrender of Detroit, the volunteers re- 
turned to York, where some of the Scarboro men 
were retained as reserves during the campaign on the 
Niagara frontier, but the majority were with Brock at 
Queenston Heights. Several men from our township 


230 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

were badly wounded. John and Andrew Kennedy- 
were of this number, the latter having had his leg 
shot away by a cannon-ball. The Secors, Wilsons 
and others received injuries. Upon the return of the 
regiment to York, the Scarboro company was with it 
when a banner,* worked by the women of Toronto, 
was presented to it by Miss Powell. 

After York was taken by the Americans, on April 
27th, 1813, many of the Scarboro men who were 
among those included in the articles of capitulation 
and therefore under parole imtil exchanged, returned 
to their homes ; some of them, no doubt, taking 
advantage of enforced inaction to attend to the 
ploughing or seeding on their land, t 

Tradition says that a number of Scarboro men 
were among " FitzGibbon's Tigers." 

The graves of many of these early defenders of 
Canada are to be found in St. Andrew's cemetery. 

Among the records of those who defended the 
country against the invaders in 1813, the name of 
Jas. Elliot occurs. Elliot was at home (about fifteen 
miles distant) when he heard the three cannon-shots, 
which were the pre-arranged signal intimating the 
approach of the American fleet. He ran all the way to 

* A full account of this banner and its presentation is given by Miss 
M. A. FitzGibbon, in "Transaction No. 1 of the Woman's Historical 
Society of Toronto," 1896. 

+ This is not improbable, as, in his accounts of the campaign of 1813 on 
the Niagara frontier, FitzGibbon speaks of the militiamen and settlers who 
joined him when they heard firing in the woods. Others may have fought 
in the ranks with the 49th, known as the "Green Tigers." The militiamen 
were at that time frequently mingled with the regular regiments, fighting 
in the same ranks. The nature of the ground and the character of the 
warfare rendered this commingling of the men of the militia with the 
regulars a mutual support. 

Militia. 231 

York, and arrived at the moment of the blowing up of 
the magazine. The concussion was so great that it 
loosened the plaster from Mr. Playter's house at Scar- 
boro. Another account speaks of Wm. Pherrill who 
was detached as signal-man at the outlook post on 
Scarboro Heights, with orders to mount his horse and 
ride into York with the tidings the moment he spied 
the American vessels in the distance. 

Although the story of Elliot's hastening to York 
upon the report of the signal guns comes from various 
sources, and is probably correct, he must certainly 
have reached the town before the blowing up of the 
magazine, as the guns were fired before eight o'clock 
on the evening of the 26th. 

That our old defenders were jealous of the honor 
and integrity of the regiment to which they belonged, 
the following curious petition to Sir Peregrine Mait- 
land, then Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, 
testifies. It is copied from the original draft on the 
water-lined paper of the date : ^ 

"To His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.G.B., Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Upper Canada and Major-General com- 
manding His Majesty's forces therein, etc., etc., etc. 

We, the Undersigned Non-Commissioned Officers 

and Privates of the Company of the 2nd Eegi- 

ment of York Militia, beg leave to approach Your 
Excellency with the purest sentiments of Loyalty and 
Attachment to His Majesty's Person and Government, 
who has given us an additional proof of his paternal 
care for this distant part of his extended Dominions 
in placing over us as his Eepresentative an Officer of 
Your Excellency's distinguished Eank and Character. 

Feeling as we do, that nothing can be nearer Your 
Excellency's Heart than the preservation of that 

232 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Honor and integrity in all ranks of the Officers of 
the Militia of this Province, which as a Military- 
Character You must always have revered, we come 
before your Excellency with the more confidence to 
state what we humbly conceive to be derogatory to 
the Honor of the Corps to which we belong. 

Captain Daniel Brooke, "who has been appointed to 

the command of the Company, has been publicly 

accused by his Brother-in-law with Felony and other 
heinous offences, which accusations have never to our 
knowledge been satisfactorily answered, in Consequence 
of which, without any evil Intention of opposing the 
Laws of the Country, we unthinkingly determined 
not to serve under a person of his Character. 

We are now, however, fully convinced of the ten- 
dency our conduct had to Insubordination, and are 
sorry we should have been guilty of such Misconduct, 
and will in future faithfully discharge our duty under 
the orders of any person Your Excellency may appoint 
over us. Nevertheless, we shall feel much gratified 
should Your Excellency be pleased to grant us the 
Indulgence of placing another Officer in the room of 
Captain Brooke,* whom we can never respect as a 
Man, however we may be inclined to obey his orders 
[as] a Captain in the Militia of Upper Canada. 

We are, with the highest sentiments of Esteem, 
Your Excellency's most obdt. and very humble 
servants : 

Richard Thomson, Adna Bates, jun., Gideon Cornell, 
Earl Bates, George Cornell, Andrew Thomson, Thos. 
Sweeting, Wm. Jones, David Thomson, Archibald 
Thomson, Peter Little, Christopher Thomson, James 
Thomson, John Martin, James Taylor, Andrew John- 
ston, Joseph Secord, William Thomson, Levi Annis, 
John Miller, Thomas Adams, Wm. Robinson, John 

* He owned the bush in York township which, in after years, formed a 
rendezvous for the notorious "Brooke's Bush Gang.'' This Brooke had 
no connection with a family of the same name in the township, one of 
whom was a well-known old stage-driver. 

Militia. 233 

Crosby, James Daniels, William Thomson, John 
Thomson, James Thomson, Peter Secor, Amariah 
Rockwell, Isaac Secor, Peter Stoner, Jonathan Gates, 
John Laing, Stephen Pherrill, John Stoner, Abraham 
Stoner, Adna Bates. 
Scarboro." * 

The Scarboro militia met annually for drill on the 
King's birthday, June 4th, at Sisley's Hotel on the 
Danforth Eoad. In 1828, about 120 men assembled. 

One of the features of the muster, after salute and 
roll-call, was treating the men to a drink of beer, which 
was» carried round in a pail. 

The men at this time were not very proficient in 
drill, and it is said that an Irish officer in command of 
one of the companies often remarked, "It is hard 
work to get them in order, even to give them a drink 
of beer." 

In 1860 they were drilled at Woburn by the late 
Colonel E. Denison. 

In 1836 the officers in command of the 3rd Eegi- 
ment of East York or Scarboro militia were : Colonel, 
A. H. McLean (January 19th, 1836) ; Lieut. -Colonel, 
E. D. Hamilton; Major, Wm. Proudfoot; Captains, 
J. McDonnell, A. Glendinning, Wm. Thomson, J. 
Torrance, James Gibson, John Taber, G. H. Pitz- 
Gerald, Joseph Secor (January 9th), John Howell; 
Lieutenants, D. Graham, J. Willaghan, D. Knowles, 
David Stobo (or Stoner), Wm. Pherrill, J. B. Street, 

* The document is not dated, and there is no record among the papers 
as to whether this unique petition was granted. It probably was, and a 
better man than the objectionable captain appointed. The petition of 
which this is a copy is in the possession of Mrs. W. Carmichael, who 
kindly permitted us to use it here. Mrs. Carmichael is a granddaughter 
of the pioneers David and Agnes Thomson. 

234i History of the Township of Scarboro. 

John Wilson, Alex. Grant (January 20tli), A.. Mc- 
Donnell ; Ensigns, W. J. FitzGerald, Thos. Chester, 
James Wentand, John Elliot, John Kennedy, John 
Pilkey; Adjutant, Q. H. FitzGerald. There is no 
Quartermaster or Surgeon. Limits : Township of 

The men of Scarboro did not aid the " rebels " in 
any way during the outbreak in 1837. An old resident 
remembers seeing Matthews (who was a native of 
Pickering) and his followers going up the old Kingston 
Road at about nine o'clock one night. They carried 
a white flag, and endeavored to persuade all whom 
they met to join them, making prisoners of those who 
refused. Among the latter was a shoemaker named 
Small who, in his usual condition of high spirits, 
marched with them, singing " Rule Britannia," and 
when they stopped at Gates's, tried to burn their flag. 

When the " rebels " threatened Toronto, the loyalty 
of the Scarboro men was practically expressed. They 
marched out four hundred strong. A number of 
these men are still living, including Hugh Elliot, Isaac 
Chester, James Weir (the two latter are over eighty 
years of age), and several others. They were enrolled 
and commanded by Colonel Allan McLean, formerly a 
captain in the 91st British Regiment. He had seen 
service in India, and was a very popular man in 

Our Volunteer Rifle Company was organized in the 
autumn of 1861, largely through the efforts of J. K. 
Taber. The first meeting was held in a house built 
by G. Chester for J. Rose, directly opposite the Scar- 
boro post-office. 

Militia. 235 

The officers were : Captain, W. H. Norris; Lieut., 
J. E. Taber ; Ensign, Wm. Tredway, who subsequently 
resigned, giving place to E. H. Stobo ; Color-Sergt., 
H. Chester; Sergeants, Isaac Stobo, E. C. Bowen, 
David Atchison; Corporals, Jas. Allison, Jas. Law, 
Eobt. Martin, Wm. McCowan ; Bugler, Jas. Hartley. 
Eank and file : E. Cornell, J. Dowswell, T. Scholes, 
H. Chester, I. Stobo, E. Stobo, W. Taber, G. Eush, 
C. Bowen, H. Bowen, T. Bowen, W. Churchill, J. 
Cann, Wm. Hall, J. Atwell, J. Leslie, J. McHenry, J. 
Duncan, J. Lennox, A. Hatrick, J. Ellis, J. Brumwell, 
H. Callender, J. Huxtable, J. McCann, J. Bell, J. 
Dawson, J. Smith, W. Kizer, W. Collins, Wm. Purdie, 
J. Booth, E. Taber, E. Stoner. Total, 44. 

At the first review held in Toronto after the Com- 
pany was organized, and when it had been brought to 
its full strength of 64 officers and men, it received 
great praise from the inspecting field-officer for the 
excellence of the men's marching, and steadiness 
under arms. 

Scarboro's patriotism was again severely tested at 
the time of the St. Alban's Eaid. She sent a well- 
drilled company to the front, which remained at 
Niagara from January 1st till May 1st, when it re- 
turned to Toronto. It was sent to Dunnville in 1866 
to guard the Grand Eiver dam above the Welland 
Canal, and prevent threatened damage by rumored 
sympathizers with the Eenians. It remained there 
three months, being billeted on the townspeople. 

They had returned home only nine days, when 
they were again ordered to the front to repel the 

236 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

They went from Toronto to Port Dalhousie by 
steamer, thence to Thorold by the road, and were 
detained there through lack of a sufficient number of 
railway cars. When they reached Frenchman's Creek 
they found the bridge had been burned by the enemy. 
On Sunday morning they marched into Fort Erie, 
in open order, double file, one hundred feet apart, 
forming the connecting link between the advance 
guard and Colonel Lowry's battery. 

The Scarboro company was considered by both 
British and American officers the finest at the front, 
where it remained about six weeks. The average 
height of the men was 5 feet 10 inches. Wm. Purdie 
and Eussell Cornell were sergeants of the company. 

The following composed the Scarboro Eifie Com- 
pany in 1865-6: Captain, W. H. Norris; Lieuts., J. 
E. Taber, E. H. Stobo ; Color-Sergt., H. Chester; 
Sergeants, Isaac Stobo, E. C. Bowen, David Atchison ; 
Corporals, Jas. Allison, Jas. Law, Eobt. Martin, Wm. 
McCowan ; Bugler, Jas. Hartley. Eank and file : W. 
Purdie, W. Allison, J. Allison, J. Smith, G. Burton, 
H. Callender, C. Eose Eobinson, J. Gr. Kizer, A. Ber- 
tram, C. Gentleman, D. Hosken, G. Pherrill, W. Taber, 
J. Bowen, L. Higgins, J. O'Brien, E. Whittington, E. 
Moody, J. Secor, J. Lennox, E. Cornell, J. Post, W. 
Post, D. Galbraith, L. Armstrong, W. Eoach, J. Bell, 
J. Ellis, sen., J. Ellis, jun., J. Acheson, J, Hartley, J. 
Leslie, J. Munro, H. Carrick, J- Chester, W. Wilson, 
J. Ormerod, L. Bowen, E. Bowen, H. Bowen, J. 
Brumwell, W. Hall, W. Churchill, J. Dowswell, W. 
Dowswell, G. Eush, J. Duncan, E. Williams, J. 
Scholes, M. Murdoch, T. Booth, L. Butler, W. Hewitt. 
Total rank and file, 55. 

MiLlTlA. 237 

S. S. No. 9 has been the centre of organization and 
headquarters of the mihtia and volunteer company of 

A number of commission papers, some medals and 
several swords are still held with loyal pride as heir- 
looms by families in the section as memorials of the 
military life of the township. 

There is no militia company in existence now ; 
but should there arise a need for men to defend the 
country, Scarboro would be as ready to prove her 
loyalty to the British flag as her sons were in the past. 

Note. — Since the above chapter was written, a contemporary 
M.S. account, corroborative of some of the foregoing statements, 
has come to light. We quote : 

" On Monday, the 26th April, about six o'clock p.m., we 
received intelligence that the enemy's squadron were in sight 
from the Highlands, standing in shore about ten miles east 
of York. The signal guns were fired. . . . 

" Colonel Chewett was in command of the unembodied 
militia of the town and neighborhood. . . . Adjutant- 
General Shaw, who lived in the neighborhood and knew every 
foot of the ground, was commanded to lead the militia, in 
Major Allan's absence,* and prevent the enemy from turning 
our flank and to support the Indians. 

" The fall of Captain McNeal, at the moment of making a 
charge against the enemy's riflemen, and the heavy loss sus- 
tained by the Sth, threw them into confusion. The militia 
driven back, retreated to the ravine in front of Elmsley's house. 

" Then General Sheaffe decided to retire to Kingston with his 
staff and regular force, and deputed Colonels Chewett and Allan 
to make the best terms they could with the enemy." — Jarvis 

* Major Allan having been sent in another direction by Major-General 



" He prayeth well, who loveth well 
Both man, and bird and beast." 

— Coleridge. 

ME. A. W. FOEFAE supplies the following list 
of mammals and reptiles that have been met 
with in the township, but most of them are now 
seldom, or never seen : 

" Black bear, wolf, lynx, carcajou, fox, raccoon, 
porcupine, skunk, woodchuck, otter, beaver, marten, 
mink, weasel, hare, black, red, grey and flying squir- 
rels, chipmunk, four kinds of mice, two kinds of moles, 
and at least one kind of deer. 

Eeptiles were never very numerous ; two kinds of 
turtle ; black snake, milk snake, copperhead, garter 
snake, two kinds of small brownish snakes (one with 
the under side a bright crimson, and the other a 
light brown merging into a light yellow); three lizards 
(one very small, red; one about four inches long, 
brown ; and one about nine or ten inches, bluish 
slate color, with large yellow spots). 

There were, and are, also four kinds of frogs, and 
two of toads." 

The last black bear was shot on lot 21, concession 
B, in the winter of 1885, after a very exciting hunt, by 
Isaac Stobo and Eobert Callender. Bruin had located 
himself in a cave on the face of the high clay cliffs 

Birds and Beasts. 289 

which border on. the lake, and. seemed determined to 
" hold the fort," from which he was dislodged only 
with great difficulty. Mr. Stobo retains the skin of 
this animal as a valuable, almost as an historical, 

Deer were plentiful. Even as recently as sixty 
years ago, small herds of them were often seen drink- 
ing together at the dams of the old saw-mills, and it 
is recorded that one man has shot as many as fourteen 
in a day. Two were observed on the lake shore in the 
winter of 1895. 

Birds of all kinds were much the same as those in 
other similarly situated parts of the Province, except 
perhaps that eagles, were more numerous about the 
Heights. An eagle shot there four years ago measured 
about seven feet from tip to tip of its wings. A few 
yet appear, but they are seen more seldom every year. 
Proximity to Lake Ontario brought immense numbers 
of water fowl up the numerous streams. Pigeons 
flew in such incalculable numbers that they were 
killed when flying over hills — men, women and boys 
knocking them down with poles, — especially when the 
weather was a little foggy. 

Wm. Humphrey asserts that his father, in 1834-35, 
made more money shooting quail than he did when 
threshing grain with the flail, at the rate of every 
tenth bushel for his pay. The birds came to feed off 
the grain, and Humphrey disposed of his game at a 
remunerative figure in York. 

Hundreds of sand-martins still nest along the pre- 
cipitous portions of the cliffs, but not now in numb^^ 
comparable with those of former years, when less 
disturbed by man, and not at all by sparrows. 

240 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


The streams might almost be said to have been 
alive with fish, including sturgeon, suckers, mullet, 
shiners, alewives, whitefish, herring, salmon-trout, 
brook-trout, pike, maskinonge, perch, and black, white, 
and rock bass. It was not uncommon for farmers to 
lay in a stock from the Scarboro streams, and for this 
purpose anglers came from Markham and other places, 
to return only when they had secured one or more 
barrels of fish. A man named Tommy Young is said 
to have speared three barrelfuls during one night in 
Highland Creek. 

The re-stocking of the township waters is a subject 
that ought to occupy attention. It would seem clear 
that sawdust was largely to blame in the first place 
for the depletion of the fish-supply, but latterly there 
is just as little doubt that the scarcity is owing to a 
disregard of times and seasons on the part of anglers, 
for the streams are now free from pollution. That 
the water becomes extremely low in the smaller 
creeks during summer is not a serious objection, for 
if fish-culture were undertaken in a business-like way, 
farmers, through whose lands the streams flow, might, 
at comparatively small cost, provide themselves with 
fish-ponds, the proprietorship of which should be as 
fully acknowledged as it now is in houses and cattle. 

There is no reason why some scores of Scarboro 
farmers should not supply the Toronto market with 
brook-trout at remunerative prices. As in the case 
of other industries, fish-culture demands intelligence 
ajiid skill. Of the former there is no lack here, and 
the latter would speedily be acquired. 

Games and Sports. 241 


" Who can enjoy alone, 
Or, all enjoying, what contentment find ? " 

— MUton. 

" If those who are the enemies of innocent amusements had the direc- 
tion of the world, they would take away the spring, and youth ; the former 
from, the year, the latter from human life." — Balzac. 


CURLING in Upper Canada, as a popular game, 
dates from about 1830. During the first half- 
century friendly contests on the ice were frequent, not 
only in Scarboro, but in Toronto, Bowmanville, Gait, 
Guelph, Fergus, Elora and other places where Scots- 
men " most did congregate," emigration about that 
time having been largely influenced in consequence 
of the feeling of political unrest that prevailed in 
Great Britain, previous to the passing of the Eeform 
"Bill in 1832. 

Numerous settlers brought with them their curling 
stones. Those who had failed to do so, and who were 
bound to curl, either fashioned field-stones for the 
purpose, or provided substitutes by sawing off sections 
from small logs of beech, or of birch. 

Prominent among the early Scarboro curlers were the 
Clarks, Crawfords, Gibsons, Gre&ns, Glendinnings, 
Youngs, Eichardsons, Malcolms, Masons, Morgans, 

242 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Kennedys, Eennies, Patersons, Forfars, Sheppards, 
Stobos, Chesters, Thomsons, Hoods, Waltons, Elliots, 
Telfers, Eaes, Badgerows, Broomfields, Bells, Smiths, 
Secors, Walkers, Martins, Purdies, Weirs, Lawries, 
Browns, Findlays, Nelsons, Crones, Scotts, Flemings,* 
Torranoes, Hamiltons and Muirs, many of whom 
have long since crossed the " hog-score " in the great 
Eink of Time.f 

Mrs. Wm. Purdie, of Malvern, has a distinct recol- 
lection of friendly matches having taken place about 
1832 and 1833, and of seeing the players passing along 
the Kingston Eoad with their besoms. 

It appears that an invitation having been sent by 
the Toronto curlers to those of the township on the 
" Front Eoad," John Torrance, of the "Back Eoad," 
agitated the formation of a rink embracing the players 
in his own neighborhood. Hence the rinks so-named. 

The earliest club matches recorded came off in the 
winter of 1835-6, when the Torontos invited Scarboro 
to send one rink of eight players, and one stone each, 
as the game was then practised. J; 

When this invitation reached Scarboro, there was 
considerable rivalry between the old and the young 

♦Andrew Fleming, one of the Auld Gang Siccars, possessed a marvel- 
lous ability in "running ports" and " chipping out " probable winners. 
His mastery of such tactics won for him the sobriquet of "The Duke," 
after the Duke of Wellington. It has been suggested that perhaps the 
word was originally connected with " jook " (Scot), to dodge in and out — 
among the other stones. 

t "Pioneer David" himself was, no doubt, a keen curler, although circum- 
stances prevented him from following the bent of his inclination. William 
Thomson (probably his father) was president of the Dumfries Curlers in 

J James Findlay's stone was known as "Loudon Hill," and John Tor- 
rance's as " Tinto." 


IN 1836. 

Games and Sports. 243 

players as to representation on the challenged rink. 
The old hands referred contemptuously to the young 
fellows as " Wully Draigles," and the compliment was 
returned by the latter speaking of their seniors as the 
" Auld Gang Siccars." But this good-natured emula- 
tion was terminated by an agreement that the two 
parties should play against each other, the winners to 
enter the lists in opposition to the Toronto club. 

The following is the result of this early match on 
Toronto Bay : 

Auld Gang Siccars. Wully Draigles. 

James Findlay, Walter Miller, 

Robert Hamilton, James McCowan, 

Thomas Brown, John Stobo, 

Abraham Torrance, James Green, 

Archibald Glendinning, John Gibson, 

James Gibson, sen., Robert Scott, 

Andrew Fleming, James Weir, 

John Torrance, skip ... 19 James Gibson, skip ... 27 

Majority for the Wully Draigles, 8 shots. 

In the match ultimately played with Toronto, Scar- 
boro was confronted by Dr. Telfer, Alex. Ogilvie, Wm. 
Henderson, Alex. Badenach, John 0. Heward, Hon. 
Justice Morrison, George Denholm, and Capt. Thomas 
Dick, skip, who, after four hours' hard play, were left 
lamenting to the tune of fifteen shots behind Scarboro, 
the score standing, Toronto, 16, Scarboro, 31, being 
within a shade of two to one. 

Mrs. Thomas Patton distinctly remembers another 
curling match on the Highland Creek marsh, between 
Toronto and Scarboro. The men carne in sleighs, and 
the horses were put into the barns, sheds and stables 

244 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

of her grandfather, Eichard Beattie, who resided on 
lot 5, concession D. She thinks this match took place 
in the winter of 1841-2. 

By the exertions of Eobert Malcolm, of Toronto, an 
old Scarboro boy, a match was arranged for in the fine 
covered rink of the Maple Leaf Club at Ellesmere, on 
the 17th of March last, the anniversary of the saint 
whom Scotland bequeathed to the Emerald Isle. It 
was at first the intention that four of those who 
sJcelpit Toronto sixty years ago should take part in 
this game, Scarboro against Old Countrymen (chiefly 
Scots ) ; but, unfortunately, James Gibson was unable 
to be present, and James Weir, though on the ice and 
intensely interested, did not play. The ages of the 
staunch old Britons averaged between seventy and 
eighty years, and of the Scarboro chiels, nearly sixty 
years. The game lasted three hours, and the ice was 
all that could be desired. 

The score stood as follows : 

Scarboro. Britain. 

E. M. McCowan. Jas. McCowan, sen. 

Wm. Patton. S. Kennedy. 

Geo. Elliot. John Gibson, sen. 

S. Eennie, skip 19 R. Crawford, skip .... 15 

T. Gibson. G. Empringham. 

A. Bell. A. Doherty. 

E,. Thomson. Wm. Hood. 

I. Stobo. A. Fleming. 

A. Malcolm, skip 15 E. Malcolm, skip .... 12 

Total 34 Total 27 

Much encouragement was given to the players by 
the presence of the genial, faithful and highly respected 

Games and Sports. 245 

minister of St. Andrew's, the Eev. Donald Barclay 
Macdonald, and among the numerous spectators 
present, were : Mesdames D. K. Thomson, Christine 
Thomson, Anthony lonson, Isaac Stobo, Adam Eich- 
ardson, Eobert McCowan, George Chester, Archibald 
Paterson, Eobt. Forfar, Tilmuth Pherrill, Wm. Young, 
Thos. Weir and Wm. Doherty; Misses E. Hood, V. 
Forfar, A. Eichardson and Nellie Carson ; Messrs. 
Francis Armstrong, David Forfar, Thos. Whiteside, 
John A. Paterson, David W. Thomson, Isaac Chester, 
sen., Francis Glendinning, James G. Thomson, 
James G. Paterson, Eobert Thomson, Lyman Ken- 
nedy, John C. Clark, Anthony lonson, James Gibson, 
William Mason, Joseph Forfar, Francis Mason, 
Joseph Teeson, sen., William Allenby, Henry Ken- 
nedy, Andrew Young, jun., Archibald A. Forfar, 
Eobert Galbraith, James Ley, Alex. McCowan, Archi- 
bald W. Forfar, Alex. Baird, William Green, John 
Marshall, Eobert Chapman, Eobert Forfar, Wm. W. 
Walton, Wm. Young, Eobt. Eennie, Tilmuth Pherrill, 
George Chester, Arch. Paterson, Wm. W. Thompson, 
James Cherry, Thomas Weir, Wm. Doherty, Abner 
Abraham, Albert Mason, Lawrence Jackson, William 
Milner, Joseph Teeson, jun., Ernest Forfar, John 
Glendinning, Eobert Mason, David Forfar, jun., John 
Malcolm, Charles Milner. 

After the curlers had taken lunch, they were 
arranged outside and photographed by J. C. Clark. 

A return match was played in the magnificent 
Yictoria Eink, Toronto, on the 20th of March, only 
three days after the last game, when Scarboro repeated 
its victory of sixty years ago with considerable im- 
provement on the score, which on this occasion stood 
exactly 2 to 1 in favor of the township men, thus : 

2'16 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Scarboro. Toronto. 

T. Gibson, D. Gibson, 

A. Malcolm, W. Summerfeldt, 

R. Crawford, B. Chapman, 

A. Hood, skip 23 W. Forbes, skip 12 

Simpson Rennie, D. S. Keith, 

Richard Thomson, Geo. Taylor, 

Adam Bell, W. B. McMurrich, 

Jas. G. Malcolm, skip ... 10 Kay Roberts, skip ... 5 

John Gibson, G. Waud, 

Jas. Gibson, Hugh Miller, 

And. Fleming, John Bain, 

R. Malcolm, skip 11 Dr. Richardson, skip. . 5 

Total 44 Total 22 

Majority for Scarboro, 22 shots. 

A very hearty wish was expressed among the players 
on both sides, that similar veteran matches, but on 
a larger scale, should be played annually, and it is 
likely this desire will be realized. 

The Markham Economist, January 3rd, 1861, has 
the following : 

Curling Match, Malvern. — The annual curling 
match between the five Canadian players from the 
east and the five Canadian players from the west side 
of the Markham Eoad, took place on Badgerow's 
pond on Priday, the 28th ult. 

Below is a list of the names of the players and num- 
bers scored by each party : 

East. West. 

James Fleming, William Purdie, jun., 

Robert Fleming, Peter C. Secor, 

Wm. Fleming, A. Glendinning, jun., 

Andrew Fleming, jun., R. Thomson, jun., 8kip.26 
A. Malcolm, jun., skip . . 29 

Games and Sports. 247 

The paper does not explain how the four players 
from the west matched -five from the east, but on such 
occasions it was customary for one or more of the 
minority to play extra stones, so as to make the num- 
ber of throws on both sides correspond. 


The Heather Curling Club, an offshoot from the 
Scarboro Curling Club, was formed at Burton's 
tavern, Markham Eoad, on the 31st day of December, 
1862, when the following officers were elected, viz., 
John Gibson, Pres.; Arch. Glendinning, Sec.-Treas. 

On October 22nd, 1863, a meeting was held to take 
into consideration the propriety of erecting a covered 
rink. J. Gibson presided, and Adam F. Macdonald, 
now the indefatigable Principal of Wellesley School, 
Toronto, was secretary. At this meeting, a commit- 
tee, consisting of the President, Eobert Crawford and 
James Robertson, was appointed to solicit subscrip- 
tions for that purpose. On November 5th this com- 
mittee reported, when it was decided to proceed with 
the erection of the said covered rink, the same to be 
built on the farm of William Clark, lot 30, concession 
4, and a Building Committee, consisting of the 
President, Hugh Clark, J. L. Paterson, Eobert Craw- 
ford and Adam Armstrong, was appointed to have the 
matter in charge. The building was completed, and 
curling commenced December 16th, 1863. This is 
supposed to have been among the first, if not the 
first, of covered curling rinks in the Province. The 
first members of the club were William Clark (hon- 
orary member), John Gibson, Andrew Young, Arch. 
Glendinning, Hugh Clark, Thomas Gibson, James 

248 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Eobertson, Simon Kennedy, John L. Paterson, Win. 
Crawford, Eobert Crawford, Wm. Clark, John Craw- 
ford, Adam Armstrong, Jas. Paterson, Jas. Young, 
Eobt. Cunningham, George Gibson, Lockhart Eogers, 
James Clark (of Kentucky), Henry Kennedy, George 
Morgan, Adam Bell, Dr. Pollock, Simpson Eennie, 
Andrew Hood, William Eennie, Eobert Gibson and 
John Clark. 

In 1866 Thomas Todd, of Markham, gave a coat of 
arms to be competed for between the Scarboro and 
Heather clubs, which was won by the Heather Club. 

On the 25th day of March, 1869, it was resolved to 
join the Eoyal Caledonian Club, and the name of the 
Heather Curling Club first appears in the annual for 
that season. On January 6th, 1870, the Heather and 
Waverley (of Cobourg) clubs, competed for a E.C.C.C. 
medal, which was won by the Heather Club. In 
January, 1872, the Heather unsuccessfully competed 
with the Toronto Club for a E.C.C.C. medal. The 
following year they won a E.C.C.C. medal from West 
Flamboro. In January, 1876, another medal was won 
from the Thistle Club, of Hamilton. In 1876 the 
Heather Club won a pair of curling-stone handles, pre- 
sented for competition among the three Scarboro 
clubs, by Eobert Malcolm, of Toronto, between the 
years 1862 and 1869. The Heathers played 63 
matches with outside clubs, winning 36, losing 24, 
and 3 were ties. 


The Scarboro Maple Leaf Curling Club was organ- 
ized in 1874, by a number of players belonging to the 
old Scarboro and Heather clubs, on account of the 
great distance many of the players had to travel to 

^j ARCH? Olf.NDINtllNG. 





Games and Sports. 249 

meet with other members of the latter organizations. 
EUesmere was selected as headquarters, and the first 
president chosen was W. Glendinning, A. Young, jun., 
having been appointed secretary. 

In 1878 the Maple Leaf Club joined the Eoyal Cale- 
donian Curling Club Association, and about the same 
time erected a covered rink. This building collapsed 
in 1881, but in 1883 another and more substantial one 
was put up, and much new interest was manifested in 
the game. 

The club has met and divided honors with repre- 
sentatives from the Hamilton Mechanics, Hamilton 
Thistles, St. Mary's, Guelph, Brampton, Whitby, 
Newcastle, Cobourg, Port Hope, Markham ; the Gran- 
ite, Caledonian, Prospect Park and Moss Park clubs, 
of Toronto, and the home clubs. 

It holds several valuable trophies, including three 
silver cups, five pairs of curling-stones, and half-a- 
score of medals. 

Por several years they have been among the finals 
for "the tankard," to win which is still regarded as 
" a consummation devoutly to be wished." 

The officers of the club at present are : Wm. Green, 
President ; E. McCowan, Vice-President ; Eev. D. B. 
Macdonald, Chaplain ; Committee of Management, 
H. Thomson, A. Paterson, W. Young, A. Mason, 
W. 0. Walton, A. T. Paterson ; Secretary and Treas- 
urer, E. Porfar. Members: E. Thomson, A. Eichard- 
son, Eobt. Green, F. Bell, J. Chester, George Chester, 
George McCowan, J. Stobo, W. Chester, N. Malcolm, 
Wm. W. Walton, and E. Buchanan. 

The Maple Leaf stands ready to accept challenges 
from the world, to play on Ellesmere ice. 


250 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


This game has been played in the township with 
enthusiasm for upwards of sixty years. The first ckib 
was organized in 1858, and was the outcome of a 
championship contest held in Toronto, under the 
auspices of the Caledonian Society, when Messrs. 
David Johnston and A. Muir, both Scarboro men, 
carried off the medal. Instead of deciding as between 
themselves, they very public-spiritedly undertook to 
form a club, placing it in possession of the medal, to be 
held against all comers. Besides the two gentlemen 
named, there were Messrs. John Holmes, jun., 
Edmund Jacques, Eichard Thomson, Simon Kennedy, 
Walter Glendinning, John Stark, and nearly fifty 
others. The first member ,of the new club to win the 
medal was John Holmes, jun., who also won a cup in 
a quoiting match. Messrs. A. Muir, B. Jacques and 
R. Thomson have since held the medal. 

The length of pitch was arranged at 21 yards 
between hobs, with natural sod ends. After this club 
became defunct, a new one under the old name, 
" Scarboro Quoiting Club," was formed in 1870. 
President, Geo. Morgan ; Secretary-Treasurer, David 
Brown; Umpire, Andrew Hood. In this club the 
length of pitch was regulated at 18 yards, clay ends. 

Several contests between th^ home club and those 
of Gait and Ayr resulted invariably in favor of Scar- 

In an international match against a picked team 
from various noted quoiting centres in the United 
States, Scarboro won by 365 points. Besides the 
officers of the club above named, other members were 
Geo. Sheppard, Simpson Rennie, Walter Glendinning, 

Games and Sports. 251 

Wm. Purdie, David Purdie, Eichard Sylvester, Alex. 
Muir, James Patton, D. Lawson, D. Smith, W. 
Brotherson, E. McCowan, W. McCowan, J. W. 
Kennedy, J. Eippon, J. Ley, John Walton, T. Pilkey, 
J. Allen, Geo. Eobinson and Isaac Thomson. 

The membership having dwindled considerably, a 
new club was organized in 1891. 

The largest prize which has come to Scarboro for 
quoiting supremacy was won by Wm. Purdie, jun., in 
a Toronto contest, when he carried off a $50 prize — 
$42 cash and a pair of steel quoits. 

It is proposed that a match shall take place on the 
occasion of the present centennial celebration, between 
those who are over and those who are under forty 
years of age. Players are to be residents of Scarboro 
on one side, against all comers. 

Among the earliest quoiters in the township was 
John Torrance, who won a championship silver medal 
at the Athletic Games in Toronto, in 1840, and which 
is still in possession of his descendants. 


Scarboro Cricket Club was organized over forty years 
ago with Alex. Muir as the first Sec.-Treas., John Muir 
as Captain at one time, and Chris. Moody at another. 

Among the players were Chris. Moody, Guy Stoner, 
Ed. McGann, Ed. Stevens, David Secor, Ira Bates, 
Alex. Purvis, Isaac Eawcett, Dan. Scrivner, Joseph 
Armstrong, John Muir. 

After some years, the club became greatly dimin- 
ished on account of removals and deaths, but received 
a new lease of life, when the following names were 
added to its list of players : Peter, William, James 

252 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

and Sidney Purvis, D. Brown, W. Brown, James Pat- 
ton, P. Ellis, T. Ellis, G. Ellis, John Clark, D. Stoner, 

D. Purdie, James Law, John Law ; Captain, James 
Purvis. They played matches with Weston, Mark- 
ham, Unionville, and BUesmere. 

There is now a good club, called by the same name 
and embracing some of the players of former clubs. 
Indeed, the present one is the continuation of the 
former organizations. The present captain is D. 
Beldam; players, Charles Beldam, Geo. Taylor, J. B. 
Spark, John Gormley, J. Ormerod, Harry Ormerod, 

E. Callender, C. Callender, D. Brown, Arthur Law 
and Ab. Law. Matches were played with Markham, 
Pickering, Toronto, Old Fort, East Toronto and 
West Toronto Junction. Out of ten matches played 
in last season, i.e., 1894-95, eight were won. 

There is another cricket club at BUesmere. 


There are five foot-ball teams: "The Aborigines,"' 
of Highland Creek; " Scarboro Village," " Bangers," 
" Maple Leaf " and " Union," all composed of alert, 
muscular young Scarboronians, who thoroughly enjoy 
a good "kick," and who maintain an excellent spirit 
of friendly rivalry among themselves. 


There is no field of amusement in which her sons 
have taken a higher place than in the realm of 
checkers. We believe that no part of our broad 
Dominion has produced so many enthusiastic and 
ardent lovers of the game as has the township of 

Games and Sports. 253 

The first public match in Scarboro of which we can 
find any authentic account was played at Malvern, 
between East and West Scarboro in 1853. The 
players representing the west were Adam Core, John 
Muir, Wm. Mills, J. L. Paterson and Jas. Paterson. 
Those of the east were Andrew Fleming, sen., Eobert 
Fleming, William Fleming, E. E. Jacques, Thomas 
Jacques, jun., and John Jacques. The West won the 

Checkers was now quite extensively played, and 
local matches were of common occurrence for several 

In 1859 Markham players challenged Scarboro to 
play a match in Markham village, with twelve a side ; 
the Scarboro men went on the day appointed, but 
found no opponents. A bloodless victory ! 

The Economist (Markham), March 27th, 1862, says : 
" Early in the forepart of last year a movement was 
set on foot in the township of Scarboro for the purpose 
of making arrangements for a ' draught tournament.' 
. Thirteen competitors entered the lists. Four 
prizes were given : John Muir, sen., first and cham- 
pionship ; James Fleming, second ; Andrew Fleming, 
sen., third, and Alexander Muir, fourth. 

E. E. Jacques, who competed for first, was debarred 
from contesting for second." 

For some years after this time lively engagements 
for supremacy took place between the clubs of Scar- 
boro and Toronto. 

The Economist, April 2nd, 1863, says : "A highly 
interesting contest at ' draughts ' between the players 
belonging to Scarboro and Toronto clubs, came off on 
the 28th of March, 1863, in the city of Toronto, 
resulting in favor of Scarboro by three games. 

254 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Scarboro. Toronto. 

Won. Won. Drawn. 

Jas. Fleming 3 J. Arnold 3 

K. Fleming 4 J. Cruthers 2 

Jos. Purvis 3 J. K. Gordon 2 1 

E. R Jacques 4 D. McDonald 1 1 

Andrew Fleming, sen . 1 J. Drynan 4 1 

John Muir, sen 2 W. McDougall 4 

Total 17 Total 14 5 

A return match was played at Malvern on May 25, 
1863, and resulted in another victory for Scarboro by 
three games. The Scarboro players were John Muir, 
sen., Andrew Fleming, sen., B. R. Jacques, James 
Fleming, Jos. Purvis and E. Fleming. 

The Toronto players, unwilling to accept defeat at 
the hands of a country club, challenged Scarboro to a 
third contest, with twelve players a side. The match 
was arranged for October 16th, 1863, at Woburn. 
Only three of the Toronto club put in an appearance 
—their best three. The following is the score : 

Scarboro. Toronto. 

Won. Won. Drawn. 

J. Muir, sen 1 M. Rooney ..... 1 4 

E. R Jacques 4 J. Jeifrey 2 

R. Fleming 1 J. K Gordon ... 1 4 

Total 6 Total 2 10 

Majority for Scarboro, 4 games. 

This, as the score indicates, was a closely-contested 
match, but was another decided victory for Scarboro. 

In the winter of 1864 the Grand Draughts Tourna- 
ment was arranged in Toronto, where the best players 
of Canada met to measure their strength. Scarboro 

Games and Sports. 255 

was represented by John Muir, E. E. Jacques, and 
Robt. Fleming. Five prizes were offered. E. Flem- 
ing secured the second. 

The year 1867 witnessed another match between 
Scarboro and the metropolis of Ontario — two players 
a side. E. E. Jacques and Wm. Fleming represented 
Scarboro, and Dean and Varcoe, Toronto. The match 
took place in Toronto, and six games were played with 
each opponent, making twenty-four games in all. Scar- 
boro won 17 games, Toronto 3, and 4 were drawn. 

After Mr. Fleming left the township in 1869, and 
Mr. Jacques's death in 1872, checkers from occupying 
a prominent place, seemed to have died out for a time, 
although the township was never without its "rem- 
nant " of good players and playing. Lately the game 
has again come to the front, and Scarboro to-day may 
be said to be a township of checker-players. There is 
a board in almost every house, and there are organ- 
ized clubs at Ellesmere, Woburn, Malvern, and Hill 
Side, each with a large membership. Out of these 
numbers there will no doubt yet arise some David to 
slay the present Groliaths, and win for this Scarboro of 
ours the proud title of " champion of the world." 

Among the chief players who have made the name 
of Scarboro famous in connection with the " Dam- 
brod "* mention should be made of Adam Bell, who 
still lives on lot 22, concession 2 ; John L. Paterson, 
lot 27, concession 3 ; Adam Core (a native of Biggar, 
Scotland), who may be called the father of checker- 
playing in this township ; James Jackson, now of 

* From dame, or dam, any woman, or a lady, each piece of old being so 
designated ; and hrod, a board. Until quite recently the game was known 
by no other name in Scotland. 

256 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Orillia; John Jackson, millwright; John Elliot, from 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; James Lawrie, of lot 12, con- 
cession 3 ; Walter Hood ; William, his son, now cham- 
pion of Manitoba and the North-West Territories ; the 
late George Morgan ; Greorge Chester ; John Muir, 
the champion of 1862 ; Joseph Purvis ; E. E. Jacques, 
who composed and published numerous games and 
positions, and was for many years recognized as 
Canada's greatest player ; Dr. Thomas Jacques ; 
Andrew Eleming, who settled on lot 9, concession 3, 
in 1834 ; Kobert Fleming, son of Andrew, now of 
Dunedin, New Zealand, where his influence in further- 
ing the game has been very marked ; and William 
Eleming, his brother, born in Scarboro in 1841. 
Further reference to the last-named gentleman may 
not be out of place. When only twelve years of age 
he played in a match between East and West Scar- 
boro, drawing two games out of six played against 
Adam Core. A few years later he played in several 
team matches against Toronto, and invariably won. 
In 1867 he made a tour of Canada, daring which he 
lost but one game out of about two hundred, winning 
all the rest with the exception of ten or twelve draws. 

In 1868 he held the championship of Canada, since 
which time he has defeated almost every noted checker- 
player in the Dominion. He has published a large 
number of original games, and is the author of many 
critical positions, which have been highly spoken of by 
the best authorities. 

In 1887 Kelly, of Winnipeg, challenged him for the 
championship and |100 a side. Kelly resigned with- 
out having won a game. In the same year Kelly re- 
peated the challenge with a stake of $50 a side, and 
this time Fleming defeated him with a score of 6 to 1. 

Checker Champion. 

Games and Sports. 257 

Having held the championship of Canada until 
opposition to his claim had ceased, he resigned the 
proud title in 1890, with the record of not having lost 
a match in twenty-two years. 

The names of some of Scarboro's present players 
are Wm. Young, J. Eeynolds, Wm. Miller, Adam 
Bell, Alex. McCowan, Joseph Teeson, jun., Wm. H. 
Paterson, Wm. Paterson, A. W. Porfar, Eobert Gal- 
braith, Eobert Thomson, Albert Mason, Thos. Walton, 
Frank Bell, James Ley, David Marshall, Lawrence 
Jackson, Eobt. Porfar, John Malcolm, Prank Hancock, 
John Martin, Eobert Martin, Joseph Teeson, sen., 
Walter Green, William Milner, Horace Thomson, 
Charles Milner, Hugh Doherty, Ernest Porfar, Alex- 
ander Doherty, William Doherty, T. Eamsay, John 
Lowry, Eobert Jackson, James Maxwell, David 
Brown, Wm. Irwin, James Clayton, George Hough, 
T. L. Willis, Emerson Maxwell, John Weir, James 
Weir, Thos. Weir, Eobt. Sisley, Joseph Ormerod, John 
Lawrie, Eobert Sellers, A. McPherson, Alex. Neilson, 
Wm. H. Jacques, James Murison, James McCreight, 
Andrew Murison, Arthur Wells, Donald Eeesor, Pred. 
Collins, Miss M. ColHns, Prank McCreight, Eobt. 
Collins, John Murison, William Stotts, Eobert 
Neilson, H. A. Burrows, Wm. Patton, Geo. Chester, 
Eussell Cornell, Eobert Green, William Carmichael, 
Vipond Sparks, W. H. Chamberlain, Wm. Green, P. 
Wheler, H. White, W. White, L. Morgan, James 
Paterson, J. L. Paterson, John Lawrie, Jas. Lawrie, 
sen., Wm. Closson, Wm. Morrish, David Leslie, 
Wm. Stephenson, James Shackleton, J. H. Eichard- 
son, W. J. Haycraft, W. Latham, Et. Callender, Miss 
Panny Callender, and E. L. Oliphant. 

258 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


Shooting has always been a favorite sport in this 
township. Here, as elsewhere, it is to be feared that 
the right to use fire-arms has sometimes been exer- 
cised irrespective of the rights of the lower animals, 
which, indeed, were not supposed to have any. 

Our birds are no longer subjected to indiscriminate 
slaughter, and public sentiment condemns the old- 
time practice of shooting at the protruding heads of 
living turkeys and geese through a hole in the top of 
a box. In those days competitors drew lots to decide 
the order of firing, and he who first shot off the ex- 
posed head received the fowl as his prize. A target 
now takes the place of the bird, the winning shot, as 
a matter of course, being that which hits nearest to 
the centre. 

Mr. J. C. Clark supplies the following information 
relative to the township rifle club : 

The Scarboro Eifle Club was organized in 1886. 
The preamble sets forth, " That we, the members of 
the Scarboro Eifle Association, desiring to encourage 
and foster the sport of rifle shooting, and to develop 
accuracy in the use of that weapon, and to engage in 
friendly competition with like associations, do hereby 
adopt the following as our Constitution, by the terms 
of which we each and all agree to be governed." 

The officers were : S. Eennie, Pres. ; T. M. White- 
side, Vice-Pres. ; A. W. Granger, Sec'y ; and J. AY- 
Kennedy, Treas. ; with about forty members. 

A silver cup was given for competition by W. M, 
Cooper, of Toronto, and a silver medal by the Presi- 
dent, S. Eennie. It was arranged to shoot for the 

Games and Sports. 259 

medal at ranges of one hundred and two hundred 
yards, off-hand, and for the cup at ranges of four 
hundred, and five hundred yards, any position, head to 
the target, the medal or cup to be the property of the 
member winning it three times. The medal was won 
by A. H. Canning, and the cup by J. C. Clark. A. 
diamond scarf pin was won by J. B. Angus in a club 
competition, at ranges of one hundred and two hun- 
dred yards. 

In 1889 the Association joined the Ontario Off-hand 
Eifle Association, and shot in the various matches of 
the season, competing in the annual tournament at 
Orillia, where they secured third place, members also 
winning valuable prizes in individual competitions. 

In 1892 a challenge appeared in the sporting col- 
umns of the Toronto papers, from the Howard Club, of 
Eidgetown, to shoot any club in the Province, distance 
one hundred yards, with a rest. This was promptly 
accepted by the Scarboro Club, and conditions were 
arranged accordingly, teams to consist of fifteen men 
a side, to shoot five shots each, result to be determined 
by string measure. 

The Scarboro Club succeeded in beating their oppon- 
ents by about forty -five inches. Their scores were : 
Jas. Eennie, 3J inches ; A. Paterson, 4| inches ; B. 
Dixon, 5J inches ; E. Eennie, 6J inches ; Thos. Hood, 
6f inches ; J. W. Kennedy, 5f inches ; J. F. Davison, 
6J inches ; Gr. Chester, 6^ inches ; S. Eennie, 6f 
inches ; A. H. Canning, 6f inches ; Wm. Eennie, 7^ 
inches; J. B. Angus, 7| inches; J. Chisholm, lOf 
inches ; E. McCowan, llf inches ; E. Canning, 12 

The present officers of the club are : A. McPherson, 

260 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

President; J. Chisholm, Vice-President; J. C. Clark, 

The rifles in most common use are Winchester, 
Martin, Buliard, Ballard, and Eemington, of 32-40, 
38-55, 40-60, 40-56, 45-75 calibre. The target of the 
Dominion Off-hand Eifle Association is used for ranges 
of one hundred and two hundred yards. 


Lawn tennis as a club game is of somewhat recent date 
in Scarboro as in most parts of the Province, although 
for many years previous to the formation of the Agin- 
court Lawn Tennis Club, a number of ardent adhe- 
rents of other field sports met frequently on the private 
lawns of J. C. Clark, near Agincourt, and the first 
tennis of the township was played there. 

Prominent amongst the lovers of field sports who 
assembled there were that veteran baseball enthusiast, 
Geo. H. Kamsay, B.A., Dr. D. A. Clark, W. D. Skelton, 
J. M. Pield, B.A., E. S. Eennie, Geo. H. Deane, J. C. 
Clark and a few others, who formed the nucleus of the 
very prosperous club which organized in 1892 under 
the following officers : Honorary President, Dr. 0. 
Sisley ; President, J. C. Clark (J. P.) ; Vice-President, 
W. A. Kennedy ; Secretary, Dr. D. A. Clark ; Treas- 
urer, G. H. Eamsay ; Captain, G. H. Deane ; and prac- 
tice was continued on the lawns of J. C. Clark and 
Dr. Sisley, Agincourt. 

Many matches were played during that season with 
uniform success against Weston, Deer Park, East 
Toronto, Stouffville, Thornhill, Lindsay and Uxbridge, 
the club suffering defeat at the latter place only. 

In 1895, the courts of the club were constructed at 

Games and Sports. 261 

Agincourt, the membership materially increased, and 
much was done to popularize the game, which now 
bids fair to be one of the leading sports of the summer 

A series of handicap matches was arranged and 
played amongst the individual members, G. H. Deane 
being the winner. 

The present officers are : Honorary President, J. C. 
Clark, Esq.; President, 0. Sisley, M.D.; 1st Yice- 
President, W. A. Kennedy ; 2nd Yice-President, A. 
J. Smith ; Secretary, G. H. Deane ; Treasurer, E. S. 

From the contents of this chapter it will be seen 
that the people of the township participate largely in 
the recreative. Indeed it may be in some measure on 
this account that they enjoy their present general 
prosperity. Social friction rubs off the rough corners, 
and friendly intercourse, with consequent exchange of 
ideas, leads to improvement aesthetically as well as 

Games and amusements in Scarboro have never 
been allowed to degenerate to the merely mercenary 
level. They are indulged in, not as ends, but as 
means, and the results may be seen in all the best 
of the numerous happy homes that dot the township, 
from York to Pickering, and from Markham to Lake 

262 Odds and Ends. 


" Those scraps are good deeds past." — Shakespeare. 

ME. JOHN GOLDIE, an eminent Scottish 
botanist, set out on a pedestrian tour from 
Quebec, on June 4th, 1819, for scientific purposes ; 
and on the 26th of that month he made the follow- 
ing entry in his diary : 

" As I did not intend to go into York, I travelled 
to-day but slowly, sometimes in woods and sometimes 
in cleared land. Before mid-day I passed a creek 
which lay very low, so that the road is very steep on 
each side. All the declivity on the east side was 
.completely covered with the Penestemon pubescens,* 
such a quantity of which I never expected to see in 
one place. For a number of miles to-day I passed 
through barren, sandy, pine woods, which it is pro- 
bable will never be cleared. In the morning I met a 
number of Indians and squaws. One of them was 
very drunk. He told me he was crazy with taking 
too much bitters this morning. One of them had no 
clothing upon him, except a piece of cloth about a 
foot in length and breadth, which hung before him. 

" I stopped for the night six miles from York, there 
being no other inn upon this road nearer to it. As I 

*The common beard-tongue. The flower has some resemblance to 


Odds and Ends. 263 

was only a short distance from the lake, I went to it, 
but found the shore at least two hundred feet high, 
and very abrupt, in some places almost perpendicular, 
so that it was with considerable difficulty that I could 
approach the water. Having bathed in the lake, I 
returned to my lodging. This day was very pleasant, 
there being a considerable breeze, which both kept a 
person cool, and kept off those .tormentors, the mos- 
quitoes. Thermometer, 76." 

The foregoing extract is made from the manuscript, 
by the courtesy of Dr. J. Caven, son of Principal 
Caven, and grandson of Mr. Goldie. 

The old house now standing near Soarboro post- 
office, and formerly the residence of Col. McLean, was 
erected by Capt. Richardson, who, while living here, 
built the steamer Canada, at the mouth of the Eouge. 

The first brick house was built on lot 24, concession 
B, in 1831, by Stephen PherrilL* ' It is still in good 
repair. About the same time the late James Jones 
built one on lot 28, concession C, having made his 
own bricks. 

The first house in school section No. 7 was built of 
planks by Wm. Cornell. It was afterwards used as a 
hotel. Mr. Cornell also made the first clearing in this 

A schooner, laden with marble slabs and tea, was 
wrecked on the beach, off the cliffs, about forty years 

* One writes that the name was Adna Pherrill, and the number of the 
lot 25, not 24, concession B. 

264 Odds and Ends. 

Wheat, flour, potatoes, and produce of various kinds 
were formerly shipped from the mouth of Highland 
Creek to ports in New York State. At a still earlier 
date the settlers took their wheat by boat from this 
point to the Bay of Quinte, and brought back flour. 
The round trip required from one to two weeks. 

The south eighty acres of lot 34, concession B, bore 
an important part in the examination that took place 
in 1846, relating to the mismanagement of King's 
College affairs. Jas. Dark bought the lot in 1835 for 
£140, of which he paid only a small sum. On his 
death the lot was left to his wife Charlotte, who sold 
it to her son Edwin. Other sons were James and 

It was largely on account of an investigation regard- 
ing the attempt made by a King's College clerk named 
Hawkins to secure possession of this land from the 
Darks, that other shady transactions of a similar char- 
acter were brought to light. 

During the early part of the century the mail for 
Mariposa left Scarboro twice a week (on horseback), 
the time required being from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. Jacob 
Brooks carried this mail for thirty years, first on 
horseback, and subsequently in a vehicle. Brooks 
served in the war of 1812, and received a Port Detroit 
medal. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Inglis, 
who drove the Markbam stage from Toronto for up- 
wards of fifteen years. 

John Waller was probably the first mail-carrier 
to employ a conveyance for the use of passengers 
between York and Kingston. 

Odds and Ends. 265 

The annals of Scarboro present examples of some 
changes that have taken place in surnames. 

Cornwell has simply been abbreviated to Cornell by 
the elision of the w. But Pilkey, from Pelletier, is a 
clear case of corrupting a French word to make it 
easy for English pronunciation (see " Pioneers, " page 
51). A similar change seems to have been effected in 
this word elsewhere, for in the Buffalo Express of 
March 28, 1896, there is a reference to "Thomas 
Pelkey, a jolly and corpulent French-Canadian," and 
an " Alfred Pelkey," as members of a party bound for 
the gold-fields of Alaska. Farther east in Ontario the 
form Pelkey also appears. On the Pilkey medal it 
is " Pelkie." (See page 270.) 

MacMin, the present form of a name distinguished 
in the township, has appeared as Macklim and Mack- 
lem. The name of Macklin, the well-known actor, 
was originally Maclachlin, or Maclaolan. 

Gr. W. Badgerow's grandfather was a Parisian 
Frenchman, who, when he settled in Pennsylvania, 
had the name of Bergeron ! 

Malcolm, for some years, degenerated into Malcom, 
but the second I has been restored, showing the 
coanection with MacCallum and Gillichallum, "the 
servant of St. Columba." 

8ecor, which in Scarboro families has retained its 
original form, takes now the spelling of Secord else- 
where, e.g., Laura Secord (see "Pioneers," page 51). 

" Coonet," or "Koonet," as applied to a kind of 
house, or fire-place, was originally VanKoughnet, an 
old settler (see "Domestic Life," page 103). 

The " Coonet " log-house was so constructed that a 
yoke of oxen could enter at one side and pass out at 


266 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

the other when drawing logs to supply the huge fire- 
place at one end of the building. 

The district comprised in S. S. No. 1 (the north- 
westerly part of the township) is known as the L'Am- 
aroux Settlement, a family of that name having early 
settled in this locality, on lots 33 and 34, on the 4th 
concession, and lot 33, in the 3rd concession. The 
"venerable Eev. Dr. Scadding conducted religious ser- 
vices in this settlement in its early days. 

The first cooking stove, a " Birr," or " Burr," is said 
to have been brought into the township from New 
York, by William Cornell, who reached Scarboro by 

Old Tommy Adams ("Uncle Tommy") was the 
pioneer flax-grower in 1825. It was scutched, heckled 
and spun here by primitive methods, being chiefly 
made into bags, mattresses and ropes. The ropes 
v?ere used on his schooner, plying between Port Union 
and Oswego. 

Straw-plaiting was a favorite occupation among the 
women in early days. Thirty yards made a good hat. 
The Misses Nancy and Jenny Perry (yet living, at a 
very advanced age, in a cottage on the Kingston Eoad) 
were regarded as most proficient and expert plaiters 
and hat-makers. 

A correspondent who has supplied numerous inter- 
esting scraps of folk-lore, writes : " The modern craze 
for church parties was totally unknown in early days. 
Churches then were used solely for devotional pur- 

Odds and Ends. 267 

poses. The only entertainments of the early settlers 
were the hoe-down and dance, which generally took 
place in, the evenings after logging-bees, raisings, etc. 
The celebration of the monarch's birthday was not 
so enthusiastically observed until the regime of our 
beloved Queen. Long may she reign ! " 

The Methodist Church at Highland Creek was en- 
larged in 1868 by building an aiddition to the front 
end, thus making it look long and narrow. A jocular 
minister used to refer to it as " the shooting gallery." 

Bunker, or Bunker's Hill, seems to have been whim- 
sically applied to what was formerly known as Sisley's 
Hill. It has been suggested that the name was 
bestowed on account of the number of " engage- 
ments " that used to take place here in connection 
with town-meetings, fairs, trainings, etc., John Bar- 
leycorn being always an active participant, and often 
the instigator. 

In 1802 the population was 89 ; in 1820 it had 
reached 477, and ten years later it was 1,135. 

In 1803 the township owned 5 horses, 8 oxen, 27 
cows, 7 young cattle, and 16 swine ; but as it is cre- 
dited with only three houses, it is puzzling to know 
where all the people lived, for they must have num- 
bered nearly a hundred. 

In 1842 Scarboro contained 2,750 inhabitants, 1 
grist-mill, and 18 saw-mills. In 1850 there were 3,821 
inhabitants, 3 grist-mills, and 23 saw-mills. 

268 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Eobert Hamilton, a Scottish weaver, who came here 
in 1825, was the pioneer total abstinence advocate in 
the township. On the occasion of his first "raising" 
he absolutely refused to provide whiskey, and those 
who came to assist refused just as positively to touch 
a stick on this account. The dead-look was overcome 
by his giving the boss carpenter authority to manage 
the business as he pleased, and the exercise of this 
pleasure brought the work to a successful termination. 

A correspondent supplies the three following ex- 
tremely interesting paragraphs : 

" In evidence of the primitive state of the country 
in the later 'twenties' or early 'thirties,' Mrs. Jos. 
Workman once told me of an advertisement which she 
remembered of Mr. (afterwards Sir Francis) Hincks, 
informing the public at large that he had imported a 
half-dozen of gentlemen's white shirts, which would 
be found of good quality and at reasonable prices. 
The mother of the writer remembered seeing even 
empty waggons stuck in the mud on King Street 
Bast, within a hundred yards of the market, between 
1825 and 1830. 

"About 1830 a saw-mill was owned and run by a 
Mr. Taylor at Highland Creek, who at that time was 
a local preacher amongst the Methodists. He was 
converted to Mormonism by the Mormon missionaries 
in the early 'forties,' and rapidly rose in Utah until 
he became Brigham Young's right-hand man, and 
finally succeeded to the presidency of the Mormon 
body. At last accounts he had six other wives besides 
the one he took from Scarboro. 

" The early settlers were all extremely hospitable, 

Odds and Ends. 269 

aad in nearly every house was a supply of whiskey or 
ale, and the social glass was a matter of course, being 
rarely absent. At the same time drunkenness was 
very rare. Amongst those few who indulged too 
freely was a farmer in the east of the township, who, 
however, lived to the good old age of ninety-eight. A 
few years before he died, a temperance lecturer, to 
emphasize his contention that temperance was condu- 
cive to longevity, cited the case of this old gentleman, 
of whose age he had been told a few minutes before, 
as that of one where temperate habits firmly followed 
produced such a green and vigorous old age. His 
eloquence was brought to a sudden stop by roars of 
laughter, and then he learned, to his disgust, that his 
pattern old man had been anything but a temperate 
liver for more than seventy years. Now no more 
abstemious or law-abiding township exists in the 
Dominion than old Scarboro is." 

Victoria Park, a well-known summer resort for pic- 
nic and pleasure parties, is situated at the south-west 
angle of the township. It consists of fourteen acres, 
partly cleared and partly v?oodland, on the lake shore. 
In 1877 this property was leased for a park by J. H. 
Boyle, of Toronto, from Peter Paterson, of Blantyre. 
It is now the property of Thos. Davies, of Toronto. 

" Squaw Village" was so called from the fact that 
on one side of the road there lived a family consisting 
in part of nine extremely candid young women, some- 
what swarthy in complexion, while on the opposite 
side was another bevy somewhat less numerous but 
equally frank. 

270 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

Scarboro's magisterial bench is composed of the 
following Justices of the Peace : Jeremiah Annis, Jos. 
Armstrong, G-eo. Chester, J. C. Clark, Wm. Helliwell, 
Eichard Knowles, Jas. Lawrie, John Milne, Simpson 
Eennie, A. M. Secor, John Richardson. 

The silver medal mentioned in the chapter on 
militia matters as being in the possession of the 
Pilkey family, is for service in the British army 
between 1793 and 1814. Medals of this kind were 
issued in 1848, and bear on one side a bust of Her 
Most Grracious Majesty Queen Victoria. The Pilkey 
medal has on the clasp, the words "Port Detroit." 
This, however, means, not that the soldier performed 
service nowhere else, but that the capture of Detroit 
was the most memorable event of the campaign. The 
family tradition that the medal was presented to 
Pierre le Pelletier for "blowing up a fort" may be 
correct, and may refer to the explosion of the York 

Medals bearing "Port Detroit" on the clasp are 
among the most valuable in the whole series of Brit- 
ish war issues. 

On the rim of the medal is engraved, " P. Pelkie, 
Canadian Militia." 

Mrs. Wm. Porfar had on one occasion an extremely 
exciting wolf experience. She and her brother, when 
children, were attending to the boiling down of sap 
one night, when a pack of some eight or ten wolves 
made their appearance, and, notwithstanding the fire, 
showed a desire to become quite too intimate. Young 
Porfar, who was the elder of the two, managed to 

Odds and Ends. 271 

lodge his sister in a small tree beyond the reach of 
immediate danger, and in this position she remained 
for many hours, while her brother treated the venture- 
some brutes to repeated applications of hot syrup from 
the sugar kettles. This mode of defence was a novel 
one, and one also which no doubt proved as embarrass- 
ing as it must have been painful to the wolves, which, 
towards daylight, retired from the place. 

The " Fishery Eoad," mentioned elsewhere, is only 
a by-way leading from Kingston Eoad to the lake 
shore, chiefly used by " Old Portwine," a Dutch fish- 

The "Kennedy Eoad," one of the chief highways 
extending from the front to Markham town-line, re- 
ceived its name from the Kennedys, several families 
of whom reside in the neighborhood. 

The last lynx seen in the township was captured by 
the two sons of David Martin, on lot 31, concession 
D, in 1891 or 1892. This animal was a large one of 
its kind, and may be seen as a mounted specimen at 
" Aberfoyle " farm-house — Mr. Martin's residence. 

In the Thomson family there is a "Fort Detroit" 
medal granted to Eichard Thomson for his services 
during 1812. In the same family are also retained 
several old military weapons of this date. 

272 History of the Township of Scarboro. 


" Time will discover everything to posterity : it is a babbler, and speaks 
even when no question is put." — Euripides. 

WITHIN the last twenty years several notable 
centennials have been held in Ontario. In 
1884, Toronto and other cities celebrated the settle- 
ment of the United Empire Loyalists in the Province. 
In 1892, Niagara, Kingston and Toronto commemo- 
rated the setting off as a separate Province of Upper 
Canada, and the summoning of its first Parliament by 
Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. At the 
same time Niagai"a celebrated the organization of its 
first Church of England parish by the name of St. 
Mark's, and two years later (1894) saw the centennial 
of St. Andrew's, the first Presbyterian congregation in 
the old town. In 1894, too, the settlement of Glen- 
garry a century before by the faithful Highlanders 
from the Mohawk Valley was celebrated, and it is 
certain that the coming quarter century will see more 
of these commemorative events as time brings our 
most wealthy and prosperous towns and townships to 
the centennial anniversary of their birth, or recalls the 
circumstances of great issues. 

In 1881 the idea of a township celebration was 
suggested by Edmund Jacques, and supported by 
A. W. Forfar and D. W. Thomson, but not much be- 
yond desultory talks on the subject took place until 

The Centennial Celebration. 273 

1891. In that year, at a social held in St. Andrew's 
Church, Robert Malcolm, of Toronto, an old Scarboro 
man, delivered an address on the subject. The result 
of this was the appointment of a committee to consider 
what should be done. The Committee was composed 
of a number of old settlers, the Rev. D. B. Macdonald 
being chairman. The subject was kept alive, and 
suggestions in reference to it considered, but nothing 
definite proposed until 1894, when A. W. Forfar and 
D. W. Thomson were again to the front in its behalf 
At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Me- 
chanics' Institute, held in November, 1894, the pro- 
posal to hold a celebration under the auspices of the 
Mechanics' Institute was broached by Mr. Forfar, and 
a committee was named to consider the matter and 
report before Christmas of that year, Wm. Carmichael 
being chairman. This committee never met to report. 

During the fall of 1895, A. W. Forfar and D. W. 
Thomson again agitated the question. Together with 
John Buchanan, they laid the proposition before the 
Township Council. The result was the circulation of a 
petition amongst the ratepayers, and a public meeting 
was called, by proclamation, at Woburn, on October 
23rd, 1895. A fair representation of the people re- 
sponded. Among those present were David Martin, 
D. W. Thomson, A. W. Forfar, James Chester, Isaac 
Chester, Alex. Baird, Andrew Young, J. C. Clark, 
James Ley, Geo. Elliot, Thomas Thomson, John Gor- 
man, W. F. Maclean, M.P. (East York), J. M. Thom- 
son, Arthur Thomson, A. M. Secor, W. D. Annis; 
W. W. Thompson, Francis Armstrong and Rev. D. B. 

The meeting being called to order, the Reeve read 
the proclamation and explained why he issued it. 

274 History of the Township Of Scarboro. 


To THE Inhabitants op Scarboro in the County op York, 

And all others, Her Majesty's subjects, whom it doth or may in any wise 
concern : 
Whereas, I, James Chester, Reeve of the Township of Scarboro, having 
received a requisition signed by Rev. D. B. Macdonald, Thomas Hood, 
James Ley, Levi B. Annis, Archibald W. Forfar, Beebe Carnaghan, Isaac 
Chester, David Martin, D. W. Thomson, Alex. McCowan, Adam Richard- 
son, W. A. Heron, Lyman Kennedy, Wm. Oarmichael, Robert Martin and 
eighty others, who are freeholders of the said township, having a right to 
vote for members to serve in the Legislative Assembly in respect of the 
property held by them within the said township, requesting me to call a 
public meeting on or about the 23rd day of October next, to be held at 
Woburn, in the said township, for the purpose of taking into consideration 
the advisability of celebrating, in a suitable manner, the 


of the settlement of the township, which will occur in June, 1896 ; 

And Whereas, I have determined to comply with the said requisition, 
now, therefore, I do hereby appoint the said meeting to be held at 

in the Township of Scarboro, on 

Wednesday, October 23rd, 1895, 

at 7 o'clock p.m., of which all persons are hereby required to take 

And Whereas, the said meeting has been so called by me in conformity 
with the provisions of Chapter 187 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, 
entitled "An Act respecting Public Meetings," and all persons who 
attend the same will therefore be within the protection of the said Act, 
of all which premises all manner of persons are hereby, in Her Majesty's 
name, most strictly charged and commanded at their peril to take especial 
notice and govern themselves accordingly. 

(Signed) Jambs Chester, 

By order, Thos. Crawford, 

Township Clerk. 

He then declared the meeting open for business. 

The Centennial Celebration. 275 

On motion, Mr. Chester was called to the chair and 
A. W. Forfar appointed secretary. 

The Rev. D. Barclay Macdonald being called upon, 
moved the first resolution, as follows : " That in the 
opinion of this meeting the residents of Scarboro 
should honor, in a fitting manner, the hundredth anni- 
versary of the settlement of their township, in June 

The reverend gentleman pointed out the value of 
this movement, and showed how much the people of 
the present day are indebted to their forefathers. The 
resolution was ably seconded by Geo. Elliot, supported 
by W. F. Maclean, M.P., and carried with much en- 

The second resolution, " Recognizing the great 
educational value of a public library, and the urgent 
need of a suitable place for our present valuable col- 
lection of books, amounting to upwards of 4,000 vols., 
therefore be it resolved, that we do forthwith proceed 
to the erection of a memorial building, to be called the 
' Scarboro Centennial Memorial Library,' " was moved 
by James Ley and seconded by Dr. Opie Sisley. After 
a warm discussion it carried by a large majority. 

Rev. Mr. Macdonald, being again called on, moved 
and strongly supported the third resolution : 

" Recognizing the interest which would be awak- 
ened by, and the value to the cause of education and 
patriotism of, a series of Canadian local histories, 
therefore be it resolved — if the committee to be ap- 
pointed report favorably upon the project — that we 
proceed to the issue of a history of this township, in 
such form as may hereafter be determined." 

This resolution was seconded by Dr. Sisley, and 

276 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

after being cordially supported by other gentlemen 
present, was enthusiastically carried. 

On motion the following gentlemen were appointed 
an Executive Committee, viz. : Messrs. J. C. Clark, 
James Ley, Adam Eichardson, L. E. Annis, George 
Chester, sen. , Geo. Elliot, David Brown, John Lawrie, 
Wm. Tredway, and Rev. D. B. Macdonald. 

On motion of D. W. Thomson, a Committee on 
Information was appointed. 

Messrs. A. M. Secor, W. W. Thompson, and Alex. 
Baird were named a Committee on Finance. 

The meeting adjourned. 

Before separating the first meeting of the Executive 
was called for organization, to meet in St. Andrew's 
Manse on October 29th, 1895. 

The Executive Committee met according to appoint- 
ment. Organization was effected, and the following 
became permanent officers : Chairman, Rev. D. B. 
Macdonald ; Secretary, J. C. Clark ; Treasurer, A. M. 

The Executive set to work with vigor to accomplish 
the work entrusted to it. A majority of the members 
were faithful in attendance at meetings, and gave 
valuable assistance in the work of the Committee. 
Two leading points engaged their attention : (1) The 
production of a history of the township ; (2) The 
preparation necessary for a fitting celebration of the 

At a later date the Information Committee met for 
organization at Woburn. On motion, John Richard- 
son, M.P.P., was called to the chair permanently, and 
Levi Annis appointed secretary. The Committee was 
divided into twelve sub-committees, one for each school 
section, and a chairman named for each, as follows : 

The Centennial Celebration. 277 

No. 1. — Simpson Rennie, Chairman ; J. C. Clark, Thos. Hood, 
Alfred Mason, F. G. Morgan, Rev. J. A. Brown, Thos. Crawford 
(township clerk), Dr. 0. Sisley, John T. Paterson, R. Skelton, 
E. Wood, Thos. Armstrong. 

No. 2. — Lyman Kennedy (reeve), Chairman ; George Elliot 
Alex. Macklin, James Stewart, Hugh Elliot. 

No. 3. — David Brown, Chairman ; R. Harding, James Weir, 
Jas. Sterling, A. R. Jacques, R. Jackson, Thos. Ormerod, Adam 

No. 4. — William Milne, Chairman; Andrew McCreight, P- 
Reesor, N. Reesor. 

No. 5. — A. W. Forfar, Chairman ; A. Young, F. Glendinning, 
W. Walton, Beebe Carnaghan. 

No. 6. — A. M. Secor, Chairman ; W. Carmichael, Adam Bell, 
John Johnston, Francis Scott, Wm. Green, Rev. D. B. Macdonald, 
Richard Thomson, Thos. Pilkey, D. W. Thomson, Amos Thom- 
son, R. Purdie, Jonathan Baird. 

No. 7. — Wm. Tredway, sen., Chairman; B. Closson, Wm. 
Helliwell, R. Neilson, W. Humphrey, H. Westney. 

No. 8. — David Martin, Chairman ; W. W. Thompson, Francis 
Armstrong, Alex. McCowan, Anthony lonson, Jos. Armstrong, 
Robt. Martin (also in No. 10). 

No. 9. — L. E. Annis, Chairman ; F. Wheler, D. Pherrill, Rev. 
W. G. Stevenson, Rev. T. Walker, John Richardson, M.P.P., 
Geo. Chester, sen., Isaac Stobo, Jas. Humphrey. 

No. 10. — A. J. Reynolds, Chairman; Robt. Martin (see also 
No. 8), Robt. Bell, Jonathan Ashbridge, Geo. Taylor. 

No. 11. — Richard Knowles, Chairman ; Andrew Annis, W. W. 
Stotts, R. Cowan. 

No. 12.— D. Baldwin, Chairman ; A. Moffat, G. Bell, J. Rich- 
ardson (York), A. Heron. 

A Toronto contingent was appointed, chiefly com- 
posed of former residents of Scarboro : Robt. Malcolm, 
Chairman ; Dr. Closson, Alex. Muir, A. Hood, R. 
Swan, Hugh Miller, W. Christie, E. M. Morphy, T. E. 
Champion, and H. M. Campbell. 

278 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

The chairman of the Executive was requested to 
prepare a circular giving an outline of the information 
necessary for the history. This circular was accord- 
ingly prepared, and issued to all sub-committees. 
Copies of it were also sent to interested persons in 
various parts of the Dominion. 

It was at first intended that one or more of the 
Committee should undertake the preparation of the 
Centennial volume, but it was soon felt that for various 
reasons it would be more advantageous to have this 
done by someone not connected with the township, 
and after a little discussion the following resolution, 
moved by James Ley and seconded by George Elliot, 
was adopted : " That someone outside of the township 
be engaged to edit the volume, and that the Chairman, 
the Secretary, and L. E. Annis be a committee to 
select and engage an editor." 

At next meeting this committee reported in favor of 
David Boyle, Curator of the Ontario Archaeological 
Museum, of Toronto, and this selection was confirmed 
by resolution. 

The following programme, prepared by the Execu- 
tive Committee, will be carried out as nearly as possible 
on the days of celebration, June I7th and 18th, 1896 : 


1. Special Memorial Re-Union Seevices in St. Andrew's Church, 

10.30 a.m. to 12 noon. During these services the past will 
be reviewed ; short addresses will be given by old residents 
of the township and of other parts of the Province. Ap- 
propriate services of praise will be sung by the choir. 

2. Dinner-horn Call to the Tables. Dinner from 12.15 to 

1.30 p.m. 
Band Music. 

The Centennial Celebration. 279 

3. Bugle-Call to Assemble at. the Platform. 

Hymn : " Before Jehovah's Awful Throne." 
Prayer : Rev. G. W. Stephenson. 
Choir : "Let the Hills Resound." 

4. Short Addresses : John Richardson, M.P.P., and Mr. Simpson 

Rennie, representing the farmers. 
Interlude : Mouth-organ Band. 
Choir (250 voices, Mr. Stouffer leader): "Raise the Flag." 

— Nelson. 

5. Short Addresses by Messrs. James Ley and Wm. Tredway, rep- 

resenting the trades. 
Interlude, concertina and organ, followed by Choir : " Wake the 
Song of Jubilee." 

6. Short Addresses by Rev. J. A. Brown, Dr. D. McDiarmid and 

Mr. Alfred Jacques, representing the professions. 
Instrumental Interludes. Last speaker to be followed by full 
chorus, " Rule, Britannia " — Band and Choir. 

7. Announcements. — -National Anthem. 

Closing Prayer : Rev. Father E. F. Gallagher. 
Bag-pipe Selections, ten minutes. 

8. First Foot-ball Contest. Play to last one hour. Band Music 

at half-time and close of game. 

9. Tea served at five o'clock. 

Band Music. 
10. Second Foot-ball Contest. Bag-pipes at half-time and at close 
of match. 
Concert at 8 p.m., in the Large Tent. 

Children's Games will be arranged at suitable times during the day. 


1. Commemorative Services continued in St. Andrew's Church from 

10.45 a.m. to 12 o'clock noon. 

2. Dinner-horn Call. Dinner from 12.15 to 1.30 p.m. 

3. Bugle-Call to assemble at the Platform, 2 p.m. 

Anthem : " Praise ye the Lord." 

Hymn: "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty." 

280 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

4. Chairman's Address preparatory to hoisting the Union Jack and 

Dominion ensign. 
Choir : " Raise the Flag." Flags will be run up to the mast-head. 
Band : "Three Cheers for the Red, White and Blue," followed 

by the Choir and Children, the latter of whom will take up 

the song with appropriate flag exercise. 

5. Address by His Honor Geo. A. Kirkpatrick, Lieut. -Governor of 

Ontario, in response to the Salutation of the Flag. 

6. Addresses by W. F. Maclean, M.P., and H. R. Frankland, Esq. 

Interlude : Violin and piano. 

Children and Choir : "The Maple Leaf." 

7. The platform being honored with the presence of a number of old 

people belonging to the township, addresses in their name 
will be given by Mr. Elias Wood and D. B. Read, Q.C., a 
" York Pioneer." 
Choir : " O God of Bethel." 

8. Address : O. A. Howland, M.P.P., Chairman Canadian Historical 

Celebration Committee." 
Choir : " This Canada of Ours." 

9. Address : David Boyle, Secretary Canadian Historical Celebration 

Committee, and Editor of the Scarboro Centennial volume. 
The People (led by the Choir) : " Auld Lang Syne." 

10. Address : Hon. Dr. G. W. Ross, M.P.P., Minister of Education. 
Choir : " Hark the Song of Jubilee." 

11. Chairman's Closing Remarks. 

Choir : " God be with you till we meet again.'' 

Closing prayer by the Chairman. 

The People (led by the Choir) : " God Save the Queen." 

12. Horn-call to Tea, at 5 p.m. 

13. Final Foot-ball Contest. 

REV. D. B. MACDONALD, Chairman. 

During the day arrangements will be made for bowling and quoit- 
ing contests between Scarboro players and others. 

By the courtesy of William Fleming, of Markham, an old Scarboro 
boy, the two organs and piano to be used in the musical part of the 
programme have been supplied. 

The Centennial Celebration. 281 

Subjoined are copies of some letters received in 
response to invitations extended by the Centennial 
Executive Committee to prominent persons, asking 
them to take part in the proceedings of the celebration. 

The Lieutenant-Governor writes : 

"Government House, 

Toronto, May 2Mh, 1896. 

Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to accept the invita- 
tion of the Executive Committee of the residents of Scarboro 
township, to be present at the celebration of the Centennial on 
June 18th proximo. 

I heartily commend, the action of the Committee in preparing 
and publishing a volume containing the history of Scarboro 
from 1796 to 1896, and I shall have much pleasure in accepting 
a copy of the volume as a memento of the occasion. 

The history of our province and country can best be pre- 
served by histories of localities and early settlements such as 
you propose. 

Very soon we shall miss from among us those venerable men 
and women, to be met with in every county, who delight us 
with stories told to them directly by the early settlers of the 
Province, one hundred years ago — thrilling stories of suffering, 
privation and toil, all met and overcome by heroic endurance, 
and a firm hope and belief, soon afterwards realized, in the 
fertility and resources of the country, in the salubrity of the 
climate, and in the happiness and prosperity of the people who 
were to be the possessors of this great province. These stories 
and traditions should be crystallized into history now, while 
those who heard them at first hand are able to relate them. 
The names of many of our townships contain a history which 
should be known to every child in the township, but, alas ! very 
few can tell whence the name came, or why it was given. 

I trust tliat every township, and certainly every county, in 
this province will follow the example of Scarboro and encourage 

282 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

the preparation of histories of the various townships and coun- 
ties, which must prove not only interesting to the people whose 
history is given, but of incalculable value to the future historian 
of our country. 

Wishing you every success, I am, 

Yours very truly, 

George A. Kibkpatrick. 

The Rbv. J). B. Macdonald, 

St. Andrew's Manse, Bendale, Ont." 

The Minister of Education, Dr. G. W. Ross, replies : 

"Toronto, AprU 30th, 1896. 

My Dear Mr. Macdonald, — I am very glad to notice that 
you propose to hold a centennial celebration of the settlement 
of the township of Scarboro. I believe such celebrations tend 
to increase the interest of our younger people in the growth of 
Canadian institutions, and, as a consequence, secure their attach- 
ment to the land in which we live. Besides, I think that we, 
who are the descendants of the pioneers of Canada, can in no 
better way show our appreciation of the great services they 
rendered to this country than by occasionally meeting to recall 
their early courage and endurance in order that we may be 
moved to imitate the qualities of citizenship which, under 
adverse circumstances, they manifested so patiently and so 

I shall be glad to receive a copy of your memorial volume. 
I am sure it will be worthy of a wide circulation. 

It may be impossible for me to be with you at the date of 
your celebration on account of the Dominion elections. Other 
engagements, however, permitting, I shall do myself the pleasure 
of attending. 

Yours truly, 

G. W. Ross. 

Rev. D. B. Macdonald, Bendale." 

The Centennial Celebration. 283 

From Principal Grant, Queen's University, King- 
ston, Canada : 

" A-pril 2Uh, 1896. 

My Dear Me. Macdonald, — I would like to be with you at 
the celebration of the Centennial for many reasons, but absence 
from Canada at the time will make it impossible. I am so 
thankful that you are going to make your celebration contribute 
to what is greatly needed in Canada — the formation of material 
that is indispensable to Canadian history -writing. We are 
deplorably ignorant of the real past of our province, for its real 
past is to be found, not in the records of legislative bodies, nor 
in military annals, but in the actual experiences of our pioneers, 
and in the story of municipal development, and of social, relig- 
ious, educational and industrial life. There are to be found 
the hidden springs of our national character, and the forces 
which are shaping our destiny. 

Scarboro has a history, and I rejoice that it is to be given to 
us. May your example incite other townships and counties to 
issue similar local histories, perhaps to offer prizes for them. 
With all best wishes, believe me. 

Sincerely yours, 

G. M. Grant." 

From O. A. Howland, M.P.P., Chairman of the 
Canadian Historical Exhibition Committee : 

"Toronto, April 27th, 1896. 
Rev. D. B. Macdonald. 

Dear Sir, — Many thanks for your kind letter inviting me to 
be with you at your admirably conceived centennial celebra- 
tion on the I7th and 18th of June. I am very much pleased 
with the admirable circular of instruction and suggestion which 
your Committee issued preparatory to the work of compiling a 
township history. It cannot fail to have the effect of pro- 
ducing a great awakening of mind throughout the township 
regarding the interesting facts which lie dormant even in our 
most modern industrial communities. The study of develop- 

284 History of the Township of Scarboro. 

ment is the chief occupation of modern scholarship, and when 
applied, as you induce the people of your township to do, to 
the study of the stages by which their industrial and social 
civilization has arrived at its present state, it ought to have 
good effects on the minds of those who pursue and contribute 
to the study, as well as on the minds of those who come to 
witness the surprising collected results. 

No small part of its good fruit may be found in its tendency 
to renew a vision of the sacrifices of the past, which have led 
to the prosperity of the present, and to the revival of a becom- 
ing veneration for the honesty, courage and single-mindedness 
of those worthy and industrious ancestors who initiated the 
task of making the wilderness blossom as the rose. 

1 shall certainly be with you if it should be at all possible. 

With the most sincere wishes for your success, and that of 
your committee, believe me, dear sir, 

Very truly yours, 


From Rev. Dr. H. Scadding : 

" Toronto, May 2nd, 1896. 

Dej^r Mr. Macdonald, — It is very kind of you and the 
Committee to desire my presence at the approaching celebra- 
tion in Scarboro, but I regret being obliged to decline the 
invitation. I am, however, in complete sympathy with you 
and the Committee in the undertaking. I sincerely wish that 
all our municipalities would follow the example of Scarboro ; 
all of them might at least make out an accurate list of the first 
patentees in their respective districts. In the Crown Lands 
Department there is, I think, a register kept, entitled 'The 
Domesday Book,' which would be of assistance in doing this. 
To be a descendant of one of the ' First Patentees ' is, in some 
points of view, as considerable a distinction as the being a 
descendant of the first United Empire Loyalists. 

Believe me, dear Mr. Macdonald, 

Very faithfully yours, 

Henry Scadding." 

cF tike 




The following list, copied from the books in the Ontario Crown Lands 
Office, supplies information with regard to the original patentees of the 
land in Scarboro. The spellings are given just as they occur in the entries. 


Lot 27. Sarah Ashbridge (all) 

28. King's College (all 18a) 

29, 30. C*pt. Wm. Mayne (all) 

?A. Charles Watkins (N. pt. 47a) 

31. Septimus Auburn (S. pt. 40a) 

32, 33. John White (all) 

34. Rev. H. Addington Simcoe (front pt. 70a) 

34. Canada Company (N. J 100a) 

35. King's College (all) 


Lot 19. Submission Gallaway (all) . . 

20. Parshall Terry, jun. (all 25a) 

21. King's College (all 100a) . . 

22. 23. David Fleming (all) 

24. Parker Mills (all 132a) 

25. Stephen Pherrill (all 140a) . . 

26. Jonathan Ashbridge (front part 100a) 

26. John Adair (N. part 100a) . . 

27. Sarah Ashbridge (all 200a) . . 

28. King's College (200a) 

29. 30. Capt. W. Mayne (all) . . 
31. Thomas Palmer (N. i J 00a) 

31. Thomas Walton (S. 4 100a) 

32. Andrew Templeton (rear 5) 
32. Richard Thornbeck (N. pt. of S. | 37a) 

May 16, 1799. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 6, 1796. 
April 14, 1852. 
April 9, 1874. 
August 24, 1796. 
November 24, 1840. 
July 18, 1831. 
May 16, 1835. 

May 17, 1802. 
May 20, 1801. 
January 3, 1828. 
April 30, 1799. 
May 17, 1802. 
April 11, 1832. 
August 8, 1799. 
August 8, 1799. 
May 16, 1799. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 6, 1796. 
July 4, 1839. 
May 29, 1847. 
June 17, 1799. 
October 18, 1842. 


Appendix A. 

Lot 32. John White ( 

August 24, 1796. 

„ 33. John White (S. pt.) 

August 24, 1796. 

II 33. Robert Tait (rear ^ 100a) . . 

May 17, 1802. 

II 33. Andrew Heron (N. pt. of S. I) .. 

November 11, 1842. 

„ 34. King's College (N. i 120a) 

January 3, 1828. 

!t 34. King's College (S. pt.) 

May 16, 1835. 

„ 35. Henry Webster (all 200a) . . 

August 18, 1810. 


Lot 10. (Included in 10 D, q. v.) 

, 11. King's College (all) 

January 3, 1828. 

, 12, 13. Donald McLean (200a) . . 

March 29, 1805. 

1 14. William Osterhout (all) 

July 8, 1799. 

1 15. James Humphrey (all 98a) . . 

October 17, 1844. 

1 16. Wm. Osterhout (all) 

July 8, 1799. 

1 17, 18. Nicholas Smith (all 248a) 

July 24, 1799. 

1 19. Submission Gallaway (all) . . 

May 17, 1802. 

1 20. Parshall Terry, jun. (all 200a) 

May 20, 1801. 

, 21. King's College (all 200a) . . 

January 3, 1828. 

, 22, 23. David Fleming (all) 

April 30, 1799. 

1 24. Thomas Hewett (all 200a) . . 

June 17, 1799. 

, 25. Thomas Walton (all 180a) . . 

May 6, 1841. 

, 26. Elisabeth Dennis (all 200a) 

August 10, 1801. 

1 27. John Adair (all 200a) 

August 8, 1709. 

, 28. King's College (all 200a) . . 

January 3, 1828. 

1 29. Elizabeth Thompson (all 200a) 

May 16, 1799. 

1 29. John Weaver (all 200a) 

August 8, 1799. 

, 30. John Weaver (all 200a) 

July 8, 1799. 

1 31. James Palmer (W. i 89a) . . 

September 7, 1854. 

1 31. Wm. Phirrill (S. E.'i 50a) 

June 16, 1846. 

1 31. Joseph Hough (N. E. J 50a) 

September 4, 1846. 

1 32. Andrew Templeton (front |) 

June 17, 1799. 

, 32. Thomas Corn well (N. 4100a) 

October 23, 1809. 

, 33. Robert Tait (front i 100a) . . 

May 17, 1802. 

1 33. John Haacke (N. i'lOOa) , . 

April 2, 1817. 

, 34. King's College (all 200a) . '. 

January 3, 1828. 

1 35. Wm. Devenish (all 200a) . . 

May 18, 1803. 


Lot 1. Joseph Ketchum (all) 

March 23, 1798. 

,1 2. Charles Coxwell Small (all) 

June 9, 1835. 

11 3, 4. Joseph Ketchum . . 

March 23, 1798. 

„ 5. King's College (all 152a) . . 

January 3, 1828. 


1 6, 7. John Richardson (all 400a) 

June 6, 1806. 

Appendix A. 


Lot 8. 




















































Alex. Neilson (E. i SO^a) . . 
Alex. Nelson (W. I 82|a) . . 
Charles Rice (all 200a) 
Samuel Heron (all 200a) . . 
King's College (all 100a) [?] 
James Hoghtelling (all 200a) 
14. John Mcaill (400a) 
James Humphrey (200a) 
Elizabeth Osterhout (200a) . . 
18. Robert Isaac Dey Grey (400a) . . 
Donald McLean (E. J 100a) 
Alex. McDonell (W. ^) ) 
Alex. McDonell j ''""^ " " 

King's College (200a) 

James Elliot (200a) 

David Robertson (200a) 
Samuel Heron (200a) 
John Taber (N. | of N. i 50a) 
Isaac Chester (S. ^ 100a) . . 
Jane McBride (S. 4 of N. 4 50a) . . 
27. Robert Isaac De Grey (400a) . . 
King's College (200a) 
Hon. John Richardson, et al. (200a) 
Martin Buckner (200a) 
David Ferguson (S. ^ 100a) 
John Martin (N. J 100a) . . 
Thomas Cornwell (S. ^ 100a) 
Dorcas Hendrick (N. pt.) ) 
Dorcas Hendrick (N. pt.) J 
Ephraim P^yson (S. i 100a) 
Elsa Cole (200a) .' 
James Molloy (200a) 


Joseph Ketchum (200a) 
Charles Coxwell Small (277a) 
4. Joseph Ketchum (400a) .'. 
King's College (200a) 

John Small (200a) 

John Coon (200a) 

Wm. Helliwell (200a) 
Joseph Forsyth (S. J 100a) 
John Haacke (N. 4 100a) . . 
Mary McGill (200a) 

May 19, 1847. 
October 3, 1854. 
May 17, 1802. 
May 20, 1801. 
January 3, 1828. 
September 1, 1797. 
May 27, 1797. 
October 17, 1844. 
April 6, 1805. 
August 10, 1801. 
March 29, 1805. 

June 12, 1806. 

January 3, 1828. 
July 8, 1799. 
July 8, 1799. 
July 8, 1799. 
March 16, 1848. 
June 8, 1838. 
October 1, 1838. 
August 10, 1801. 
January 3, 1828. 
November 5, 1827- 
May 16, 1799. 
May 1, 1838. 
October 26, 1844. 
October 23, 1809. 

June 12, 1798. 

July 8, 1799. 
November 26, 1807. 
December 31, 1798. 

March 23, 1798. 
June 19, 1835. 
March 23, 1798. 
January 3, 1828. 
October 22, 1807. 
May 16, 1799. 
July 18, 1856. 
September 4, 1800. 
April 2, 1817. 
April 6, 1797. 


Appendix A. 

Lot 11. King's College (200a) 

,1 12. George Irvin (N. ^ 100a) . . 

1, 12. James Hoghtelling (all 200a) 

„ 13, 14. John MoGill (400a) 

„ 15. Wm. Fawcett (S. -J 100a) . . 

1, 15. Frances Faucet (N. ^ 100a) 

n 16. Lt. Miles McDonell (200a) . . 

,, 17. Wm. Jones (200a) . . 

It 18, 19, 20. Robert Isiao De Grey (600a 

.1 21. King's College (200a) 

,, 22. Ebenezer Cavers (200a) 

<i 23. Andrew Thomson (200a) . . 

„ 24. David Thomson (200a) 

., 25. William D. Thompson (N. | 94a) 

1, 25. Andrew Thompson (W. ^ of S. i 47a) 

.1 26, 27. Robert Isaac De Grey (400a) . . 

.1 28. King's College (200a) 

„ 29, 30. Wm. Pickard (400a) . . 

., 31. Daniel Galbraith (S. i 100a) 

n 31. Robert Galbraith (N.^i 100a) 

II 32, 33. Capt. Wm. Demont (400a) 

,, 34. King's College (200a) 

II 35. Capt. Wm. Demont 


Lot 1. Zipporah Roebuck (200a) . . 
II 2. Wm. Eadus, et al. (200a) . . 
II 3. King's College (200a) 
II 4. Joseph Ketchum (200a) 
>i 5. Owen McGrath (200a) 
,1 6. Thomas Chester (S. ^ 100a). . 
,1 7. Owen McGrath (200a) 
„ 8. Elizabeth Davis (200a) 
fi 9. Canada Company (S. ^ 100a) 
II 9. Canada Company (N. 4 100a) 

II 10. Susannah Harris (200a) 

,1 11. John Segar (200a) 

,1 12. Wm. Westney (S. i and N.E. J 150a) 

,1 12. Wm. Anthony (N.W. J 50a) 

,1 13. George Irvin (200a) . . 

,1 14. Amos Merrit (200a) . . 

11 15. .John Markley (200a) 

I, 16. King's College (200a) 

,1 17. Richard Hatt (200a) 

July 3, 1828. 
April 5, 1797. 
September 1, 1797. 
May 27, 1797. 
September 30, 1850. 
June 4, 1857. 
July 8, 1799. 
March 26, 1804. 
August 10, 1801. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 17, 1802. 
May 17, 1802. 
May 17, 1802. 
October 7, 1857. 
April 5, 1861. 
Augusb 10, 1801. 
January 3, 1828. 
July 24, 1799. 
September 23, 1836. 
September 23, 1836. 
May 1, 1798. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 1, 1798. 

May 17, 1802. 
April 6, 1797. 
January 3, 1828. 
March 23, 1798. 
October 24, 1798. 
June 18, 1856. 
October 24, 1798. 
December 31, 1798. 
November 29, 1844. 
February 14, 1834. 
July 24, 1799. 
July 8, 1799. 
June 18, 1856. 
January 30, 1857. 
April 5, 1797. 
April 15, 1797. 
July 8, 1799. 
January 3, 1828. 
July 24, 1799. 

Appendix A. 


Lot 18, 





















19. Richard Hatt (400a) .. 
James Bowes (N. 4 100a) . . 
Joseph Hall, et at. (S. E. J 60a) 
Andrew Johnson (S. W. J 50a) 
Andrew Johnston (200a) 
Jacob Fisher (200a) . . 
Valentine Fisher (200a) 
King's College (200a) 
26. Archibald Thompson (S. J 100a) 
John Walton (N. | 100a) 
John Thompson (S. i 100a) 
Archibald Thomson (S. 1 100a) . 
John Henry Kahman (N. \ 100a) \ 
John Henry Kahman J 

Canada Company (200a) 
Eliphalet Hale (200a) 
Capt. Wm. Demont (200a) . . 
lohabod Vradeiiburgh (N. i 100a) 
Andrew Fitzpatrick (S. 4 100a) 
Louis Simon (^. \ 100a) . . 
35. Capt. Wm. Demont (400a) 


November 1, 1808. 
December 29, 1858. 
October 14, 1859. 
June 21, 1859. 
July 8, 1799. 
May 17, 1802. 
March 8, 1803. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 16, 1799. 
December 19, 1835. 
October 10, 1856. 
May 16, 1799. 

July 8, 1799. 

July 9, 1829. 
May 24, 1799. 
May 1, 1798. 
November 27, 1850. 
September 30, 1836. 
February 18, 1850.* 
May 1, 1798. 


Lot 1. Eliza Small (all) 
II 2. Clarissa Thompson, et al. (N. 
H 3. Eliza Small (all) 
M 4. John Robert Small (200a) . . 
II 5. Canada Company (N. J 100a) 
II 5. Canada Company (S. J 100a) 
,1 6. Wm. Eadus, et al. (200a) 
,1 7. Eliza Small (all) 
,1 8. John S. Palmer (200a) 
,, 9, 10. James Whitton (400a) 

II 11. King's College (200a) 

II 12. Elizabeth Vanderlip C200a) 

II 13. Sarah McDougall (200a) 

,1 14. Nathan Osburn (200a) 

II 15. Alex. Sterling (N. i 100a) 

M 15. Thomas Walton (S. i 100a) 


* Voided by the Heir and Devisee Commission, July 20, 1850. 
+ "This lot is omitted in the Record of the Patent bearing date 
supposed to exist in the onginni." (MS. note in Crown Lands Register, 
J Patent to Andrew Sterling — Cancelled, 

February 10, 1797. 
March 3, 1857. 
February 10, 1797. 
June 30, 1801. 
August 21, 1835. 
February 17, 1837. 
April 6, 1797. t 
February 10, 1797. 
July 29, 1862. 
October 24, 1798. 
January 3, 1828. 
October 24, 1798. 
July 8, 1799. 
July 8, 1836. 
October 9, 1857.| 
March 8, 1859. 

March 8th, 1832, but is 
page 117.) 


Appendix A. 

Lot 16-20. John McDougall (1,000a) 

21. Canada Company (200a) 

22. John McDougall (200a) 

23. 24. John McDougall (400a). . 
25. John Elliott (S. 4 100a) 

25. Robert Hamilton (N. J 100a) 

26, 27. Nicholas McDougall (400a) 
28. King's College (200a) 
^9. Margaret Ryckman (200a) . . 

30. Richard Flack (200a) 

31. Jacob Snider (rear pt. 100a) 

31. Thomas Rogers (front pt. 100a) 

32, 33. Capt. Wm. Demont (400a) 

34. King's College (200a) 

35. Capt. Wm. Demont (200a) . . 


Lot 1, 2. Eliza Small (400a) 

3. Canada Company (200a) 

4. Eliza Small (200a) .. 

5. John Robert Small (200a) . . 

6. King Park (S. i of S. i 50a) 
6. James Ross, the Elder (N. | of S. | 50a) 

6. Abraham Reesor (N. h 100a) 

7. James Thompson (200a) 

8. John White (all) 

9. Canada Company (S. ^ 100a) 
9. Canada Company (N. ^ 100a) 

10, 11. John White (all) 

12. George Hamilton (200a) 

13. 14 (E. J). John Hewett (300a) 

14. George Hamilton (W. part of E. i) 
14 (W. 4), 15. Eva Bradt (300a) 

16. King's College (200a) 

17, 18. Elizabeth Thompson (400a) 

19. Lieut. Miles McDonell (200a) 

20. Joseph Harrington (S. i 100a) 

20. Wm. Nash (N. ^ 100a) 

21. John Smith (200a) . . 

22. Barnabas Eddy (200a) 

23. Ernest Martin (N. pt. lOOa) 

23. Nancy Wintemute (S. i 100a) 

24. Canada Company (200a) 

25. Azariah Lundy (200a) 

August 20, 1804. 
July 9, 1829. 
August 20, 1804. 
May 17, 1802. 
January 7, 1846. 
September 25, 1847. 
May 17, 1802. 
January 3, 1828. 
July 24, 1799. 
July 8, 1799. 
May 27,' 1839. 
May 27, 1839. 
May 1, 1798. 
January 3, 1828. 
May 1, 1798. 

February 10, 1797- 
August 31, 1831. 
February 10, 1797. 
June 30, 1801. 
July 5, 1856. 
May 3, 1848. 
June 18, 1856. 
December 31, 1798. 
August 24, 1796. 
March 8, 1832. 
February 14, 1834. 
August 24, 1796. 
June 18, 1845. 
July 16, 1797. 
September 4, 1837. 
July 24, 1799. 
January 3, 1828. 
June 12, 1798. 
July 8, 1799. 
September 25, 1847- 
May 10, 1855. 
July 10, 1801. 
July 8, 1799. 
[Nodate.— D.B.] 
July 29, 1833. 
July 9, 1829. 
July 8, 1799. 

Appendix A. 


Lot 26. David Thompson (200a) 

27. Thomas Kennedy (N. 4 100a) 
2V. Jairus Yeamans (S. J 100a). . 

28. Andrew Thomson (200a) . . 

29. Archibald Thompson (200a) 

30. Andrew Kennedy (S. i 100a) 

30. Andrew Kennedy (N. i 100a) 

31, 32. Capt. Wm. Demont (400a) 
33. Isaac Christy (S. ^ 100a) . . 
33. John Rogers (N.W. i 50a) . . 

33. John McCready (N.E. J 50a) 

34, 35. Capt. Wm. Demont (400a) 

May 17, 1802. 
May 2, 1838. 
June 22, 1838. 
May 17, 1802. 
May 16, 1799. 
November 1, 1817. 
May 17, 1828. 
May 1, 1798. 
May 27, 1836. 
September 1, 1845. 
September 1, 1845. 
May 1, 1798. 


Lot 1, 2. Peter Reesor (all 128a) . 

3. Benjamin Wm. Eaton (all). 

4, 5. Andrew Mercer (all) 

6. George Kuck (all) . . 

7. Andrew Mercer (all) . . 

8. John Oliver (rear part) 

9. George Kuck (all) . . 

10. John Oliver (rear part) 

11. John Oliver (rear part) 

12. George Kuck (all) . . 

13. [No entry for this lot.— D.B.] 

14. Andrew Mercer (W. i) 

14. George Hamilton (W. pt. of E. I) 

15. Andrew Mercer (all). . 

16. King's College (all 68a) 
17-19. Andrew Mercer (all) 

20. Benjamin Wm. Eaton (all) . 

21, 22. Andrew Mercer (all) 

23. King's College (all) . . 

24. Helen Penwick (all) . . 
25-26. James Osburn, jun. (all) 

27. Helen Penwick (all).. 

28. John Kennedy, sen. (all 64a) 

29. James Osburn, jun. (all) 

30. Helen Penwick (all). . 

31. 32. John Wintermute (all) . 

33. Benjamin Wm. Eaton (all) . 

34, 35. John Wintermute 

Pebruary 4, 1812. 
June 26, 1812. 
August 8, 1811. 
April 13, 1812. 
August 8, 1811. 
March 5, 1840. 
April 3, 1812. 
March 5, 1840. 
March 5, 1840. 
April 3, 1812. 

August 8, 1811. 
September 4, 1837. 
August 8, 1811. 
January 3, 1828. 
August 8, 1811. 
June 26, 1812. 
August 8, 1811. 
May 16, 1835. 
February 13, 1812. 
August 7, 1811. 
Pebruary 13, 1812. 
Pebruary 1, 1812. 
August 7, 1811. 
Pebruary 13, 1812. 
June 30, 1801. 
June 26, 1812. 
June 30, 1801. 

292 Appendix B. 


The statistics of Soarboro for 1795 would be peculiarly interesting at 
this time, but unfortunately there was no statistician, because there were 
no taxes to collect, and even if there had been, there was nobody to pay 
them. Had Lieutenant-Governor Sir John Graves Simcoe appointed 
some one or more intelligent Mississaugas to furnish him with an estimated 
return of the township's natural wealth and resources, it might have stood 
somewhat thus : Mr. and Mrs. Sauga and family, 7 ; Wigwams, 1 ; Pines, 
6,295,631; Oaks, 2,587,600; Maples, 4,759,989; other trees, 41,214,108 ; 
Bears (resident), 102 ; (non-resident), not known ; Wolves (resident), 423 ; 
(non-resident), very large number ; Deer (transient), 1,025 ; Game-birds, 
numerous ; Fish, uncountable ; Income and personal property of the 
Sauga family, inappreciable ; Days of statute labor, none. 

Exactly fifty years after this the figures prepared for the use of the 
Home District Municipal Council stood as follows : Resident lands, 
uncultivated, 22,313 acres ; cultivated, 16,913 acres ; value of land, 
£21,375 ; value of stock, etc., £22,054 ; tax on land and stock at Id. in 
the pound, £180 19s. Id. ; School taxes, £135 13s. 3d. ; total, £316 
12s. 4d. ; and there were about 650 heads of families (in 1848 there were 

The following table will show how matters stood at the close of the next 

half-century, according to the township assessment roll for 1895 : 

■rr„,,,. Average 

value. Value. 

Number of persons assessed 1,410 .... .... 

,1 acres (resident) 42,773 $2,174,567 00 |50 84 

11 acres (non-resident) 208 41,545 00 199 64 

Total 42,981 $2,216,112 00 $5156 

Taxable income $2,900 00 

Personal property 4,400 00 

7,300 00 

Total $2,223,412 00 

Number of Persons in families 3,810 

II Children between 5 and 16 years . . 845 

II II II 7 and 13 years . . 494 

II II over 16 and under 21 years. . 267 

Cattle 3,615 

11 Sheep 1,838 

Hogs 1,958 

II Horses 2,013 

II Dogs 416 

II Bitches 22 

Acres of Woodland 1,800 

II Swamp, marsh or wet land 3,642 

II Orchard and garden 876 

II Fall wheat l,521i 

Days of statute labor 2,249" 

Appendix C. 




Wm. Allison, Highland Creek. 

Jerry Annis, Scarboro. 

David Annis, Scarboro. 

Thos. Adams, sen., Highland Creek. 

Andrew Annis, Port Union. 

Jane A. Annis, Scarboro. 

Wm. Armstamg, Rouge Hill. 

Emily Annis, Port Union. 

Jos. Bowden, Woburn. 

Wm. Booth, Highland Creek. 

Jane Bennett, Highland Creek. 

Martin Badgerow, Malvern. 

Jas. Brandon, Dunbarton. 

Rev. W. B It, Scarboro. 

Jas. Bennett, Highland Creek. 

Margt. Bell, Highland Creek. 

Jacob Brumwell, Highland Creek. 

Wm. Bell, Danforth. 

Wm. Bellchamber, Dunbarton. 

Edward Burton, Stouffville. 

A. V. Bussick, Stouffville. 

Fanny Burton, Stouffville. 

Geo. Castle, Scarboro. 

Jos. Covey, Toronto. 

Russell Cornell, Scarboro. 

J. H. Colegrove, Scarboro. 

Chas. Cornell, Scarboro. 

Geo. Chester, Scarboro. 

Dr. L. D. Closson, Scarboro. 

Wm. Collins, Scarboro. 

Edward Clark, Scarboro. 

Jabez Collins, Cherrywood. 

Fred. Chinn, Stouffville. 

Jno. Collins, Highland Creek. 

Jessie Chapman, Scarboro. 

Stephen Closson, Highland Creek. 

Jno. Chellew, Scarboro. 

Mary Courtice, Pickering. 

A. J. Courtice, Pickering. 

J. W. Chapman, Highland Creek. 

Ann Clark, pighland Creek. 

Jas. Carnaghan, Scarboro. 

Jno. Duncan, Highland Creek. 

Robt. Dixon, Port Union. 

Thos. Ellis, Highland Creek. 

Thos. Elliot, Highland Creek. 

Jno. Elliot, Highland Creek. 

Geo. Ellis, Highland Creek. 

Wm. Fawcett, Highland Creek. 

W. A. Fawcett, Highland Creek. 

John Ford, Highland Creek. 

J. Francisco, Highland Creek. 

Andrew Fleming, Highland Creek. 

Jno. Fisher, Dunbarton. 

Ann Ferguson, Dunbarton. 

W. S. Finch, Toronto. 

J. R. Foster, Toronto. 

Wm. Galloway, Highland Creek. 

liinatius Galloway, Highland Creek. 

Nelson Gates, Scarboro. 

Mary Guthrie, Scarboro. 

B. W. Gossage, P.L.S., Toronto. 

Wm. Helliwell, Highland Creek. 

Geo. Hane, Highland Creek. 

Mary Hodgins, Highland Creek. 

Jos. Humphrey, Scarboro. 

Jas. Humphrey, jun., Scarboro. 

Edward Huxtable, Highland Creek. 

Frank Helliwell, Highland Creek. 

Arch. Heron, Danforth. 

Chas. Hood (the contractor), Toronto. 

Thos. Ireson, Belford. 

Jos. Ireson, Belford. 

Thompson Jackson, Scarboro. 

Thos. Jacques, Scarboro. 

Chas. Justis, Highland Creek. 

Wm. Keeler, Highland Creek. 

Stephen Keeler, Highland Creek. 


Appendix C. 

Harry Key, Highland Creek. 
Jas. Keeler, Highland Creek. 
Orson Keeler, Highland Creek. 
Simon Kennedy, Agincourt. 
Ohaa Ley, Highland Creek. 
Alf. Lailey, Highland Creek. 
Hy. Lanktree, Highland Creek. 
Thos. Laskey, Highland Creek. 
Sarah Dickson, Highland Creek. 
Jas. Lawrie, Malvern. 
Chas. Mabley, Scarboro. 
Saul Mighton, Scarboro. 
Alex. Moffat, Scarboro. 
Jas. Mitchell, Port Union. 
Jos. Moon, Port Union. 
L. Mordan, Stouffville. 
Jno. Morrish, Highland Creek. 
Jno. May, Highland Creek. 
Chas. Mcintosh, Highland Creek. 
Arch. McAllister, Highland Creek. 
Donald McLean, Scarboro. 
Thos. MoMahon, Scarboro. 
Robt. McHenry, Scarboro. 
Peter Nesbit, Dunbarton. 
Jno. S. Palmer, Dunbarton. 
Thos. Parker, Highland Creek. 
Jno. Pearce, Highland Creek. 
Jordan Post, jun.. Highland Creek. 
Richard Pearce, Highland Creek. 
Hy. Lee Pallen, Port Union. 
W. H. Paterson, Port Union. 
Geo. Pearce, Rouge Hill. 
Mary B. Richardson, Scarboro. 
J. M. Read, Scarboro. 
^Vm. Rolph, Woburn. 
J. S. Reason, Woburn. 
Samuel Richa,rdson, Scarboro. 

James Richardson, Scarboro. 

Wm. Richardson, Scarboro. 

Ezekiel Richardson, Scarboro. 

Hy. G. Rutledge, Toronto. 

Chas. Robertson, Toronto. 

Thos. Skelding, Highland Creek. 

Gilbert Smith, Norway. 

D. Secor. 

W. B. Sanders. 

W. Somerville. 

Wm. Size, Unionville. 

Thos. Stephenson, Highland Creek. 

John Stoner, Highland Creek. 

Eleanor Seeker, Dunbarton. 

D. G. Stephenson, Highland Creek. 

James Smith, Toronto. 

Hy. Moore, Toronto. 

Joshua Tripp, Highland Creek. 

Wm. Tredway, Highland Creek. 

Jos. Telfer, Scarboro. 

Smith Thompson, Malvern. 

Geo. Topper, Malvern. 

Jas. C. Taylor, Malvern. 

John Wright, Highland Creek. 

John H. Wilson, Markham. 

Thos. Walton. 

Martin Willis, Malvern. 

Wm. Westney, Highland Creek. 

David Wallace, Highland Creek. 

Eliz. W^allace, Highland Creek. 

John Wilson, Highland Creek. 

Edward Wheler, Stouflfville. 

Matthew Walton, Toronto. 

Thos. Young, Highland Creek. 

James Young, Highland Creek. 

Adam Yule, Port Union. 


ADAMS, James, 46. 

Adams, Thomas (Uncle Tommy), 48, 

135, 266. 
Addison, Parson, 44. 
Agincourt, 225. 
Agricultural Society, First, 64. 

Subscribers, 65. 

First fair, 66. 

First fair, prizes, 66, 67. 

Second fair, 67. 

Second fair, prizes, 67, 68. 

Third fair, 68. 

Fourth fair, 68. 

Fifth fair, 68. 

Fairs, 1850-1854, 69, 70. 

Fairs, 1855-1857, 70-72. 

Fair, 1895, 72. 

East Riding Association, 73. 

Farmers' Institute, East York, 
73, 74. 
Anchor, Large, lost, 52, 113. 
Annis, Charles, 40. 

Mail-carrier, 40. 
Annis family, 40. 
Annis, Rev. J. W., 166. 
Annis, Levi, 40. 

Quarters for British soldiers, 41. 
Armstrong, Francis, 58. 
Ashbridge family, 49. 
Ayrshire cattle, 75. 

BANDS, Brass, 219. 

Mouth organ, 219. 
Bark chair-bottoms, 105. 
Bark ropes, 105. 
Barn, First frame, 43. 
Bear, Last, killed, 238. 
Bears, 33. 

Beer at ploughing-matches, 78. 
Bees, Husking, 106. 

Logging and raising, 96, 98, 106. 

Paring, 106. 

Bell, John, 59. 

Bible Christian Methodists, 171. 
Bible Society, 176. 
"Billy-go- the- road," 60. 
Billy's Point, 60. 
Birkbeck, Dr. Geo., 198. 
Boarding round, 178. 
Boys, Pioneer, occupations, 177. 
Birthdays, Kings', 107. 
Birthdays, Queen's, 107. 
Black ash chair-bottoms, 105. 
Blacksmiths, 131. 
"Blue-bell." The, 59. 
Breboeuf, 173. 
Bridges, Old, 119. 
Brick house, First, 263. 
Brick-maker, Early, 133. 
Bricks, price in 1796, 37. 
Brock, General, 228, 229. 
Brooke's Bush Gang, 232. 
Brown's Corners, 59. 
Brown, David, 59. 
Books, Pio leers', 108. 
Brymner, Dr. Douglas, 28. 
Buckwheat pancakes, 106. 
"Bung" Sleigh, 163. 
Bunker Hill, 267. 
Burial, Deep, 208. 
Buzzer; The, 89. 

CANADA Company, 27. 
Canada, The, 135. 
Canadian Backwoodsman, 99. 
Candles, 125. « 

Carding by hand, 102. 
Carroll, Rev. Dr., 163, 165. 
Centennial celebration proposal, 272. 
Centennial proclamation, 274. 
Centennial programme, 278-280. 
Chairs, Black-ash-bottomed, 105. 
Chairs, Rush-bottomed, 105. 
Checkers, 252. 



Chewett's map, 117. 

Chester, Isaac, 48. 

Chester, Lieutenant George, 48. 

Chisholm, Rev. J., 156. 

Christian Endeavor organization, 169. 

Churches — 

Bethel, or Sewell's, 168, 169. 

Bible Christian, 171. 

Catholic, Roman, 173. 

Centennial Methodist, 172, 173. 

Christ, 160. 

Ebenezer, 169. 

Free Methodist, 170. 

Knox, J 48, 152, 153. 

Melville, 154-160. 

St. Andrew's, 136. 

St. Andrew's, Old, 138. 

St. John's, 142. 

St. Jude's, 161. 

St. Margaret's, 114, 157-160. 

St. Paul's, 161. 

Stone, 172. 

Zion, 145. 
Clark fauiily, 60. 
Clergy Reserve land, 41. 
Closson, Stephen, 59. 
Clydesdale horses, 75. 
Coming changes, 91. 
Cooking of old, 103. 
Coonet fireplace, 103. 
Coonet, Roger, 40. 
Cordwood, 128. 
Corn cakes, 106. 
Cornell family, 44. 
Cornell, Will'iam, 40. 
Corson, Rev. Robert, 164. 
Councils — 

Chose reeve.s, 121. 

District abolished, 121. 

First meeting township, 120. 

First menibers, 120. 
Councillors, 117. 

Two for each township, 120. 
Craig, Rev. R. N., 150. 
Cricket, 251. 
Crowell, RevT Seth, 164. 
Culp, Rev. David, 164. 
Curling, 241. 

First matches, 242. 

Last matches, 244 246. 

Heather Club, 247. 

Maple Leaf Club, 248. 

"The Duke," 242. 

Scarboro Club, 244. 

DAIRY, 90, 91. 
Danforth, Asa, 112, 113. 
Danforth post-office, 226. 
Daniel, Father, 173. 
Dark lot, The, 264. 
Darling, Rev. W. S., 160. 
Darlington, 25. 

Detroit, Surrender of, 228, 229. 
Deveniah, Wra., 43. 
Dinner-horn, 109. 
Dishes, Wooden, 127. 
District, Home — 

First council, 118. 

Original limits, 118. 

Roads appropriations, 119, 120. 

Township representation, 118. 
Doctors, Native, 205. 

Bain, 210. 

Baker, 210. 

Clapp, 214. 

Closson, J., 211. 

Closson, L. D., 211. 

Cruikshanks, G. R., 213. 

Duncan, 213. 

Graham, 208. 

Hamilton, R. D., 132, 206. 

Harvie, 210. 

Hipkins, 209. 

Hunter, 213. 

Irving, Wm., 213. 

Lapsley, 210. 

MoDiarmid, Peter, 212. 

Pollock, D. J., 211. 

Richardson, Joseph, 213. 

Richardson, Samuel, 213. 

Richardson, S. R., 212. 

Sisley, Opie, 214. 

Winstanley, 209. 
Dolway's Swale, 114. 
Domestic life, 100. 
Dominion Day, 107. 
Duke of York, The, 134. 
Durham cattle, 75. 
Durham, Lord, Municipal Govern- 
ment, 118. 
Dutch oven, 103. 
Dyes, Home-made, 102. 

EAR, Severed, 208. 
Ecores, Les Grandes, 25. 
Electric possibilities, 91. 
Elliot, Jas., 32, 33, 41. 
Elliot Hotel, 114. 
Engine, Threshing, 89. 



Epi'^copalian churches, ICO. 
Epworth League, 173. 


Farm, 04 

Farmers' Association, East Riding, 

Farm-house, Modern, 110. 
Farmers' Institute, East Yorlc, 73, 74. 

Papers read, 73, 74. 
Farm prizes, Rules for awarding, 92. 
Farmer's table 109. 
Farmer's wife's work, 91. 
Fiddlers, 107. 
First brick house, 5J63. 
First Council Home District, 118. 
First frame barn, 43. 
First grist and saw mill, 45. 
First log-house, 32. 
First library, 198. 

First meeting township council, 120. 
First members township council, 120. 
First orchard, 45. 

First Parliament, Up. Can. , 117, 272. 
First post-office, 22 1. 
First school, 185. 
First s'ove, 3-'. 
First teacher, 185. 
First teetotaler, 268. 
Fish, 240. 
Fish culture, 240. 
Fish plentiful, 35. 
Fish story, 35. 
Flax iirst grown, 266. 
Flax mill, 105. 
Flax ropes, 105. 
Fleming, Andrew. 60. 
Fleming, Sandford, 10. 
Fletcher. Rev. D. H, 150, 155. 
Foglie, 43. 

Mrs., killed, 43. 
Foresters, I. O., 218. 
Foot-ball, 252. 
Forty-mile Creek, 45, 46. 
Furnaces, Coal, 111. 
Furnishings, Modern house, 109. 

GATCHEL, Rev. Jos., 161. 
Gates's Grove, 107. 
(Jates's Gully, 41. 
Gates Jonathan, 54. 
Gites's Tavern, 54. 
George, Rev. Jas., 138, 139. 
Glendinning, Mary, 30. 


Glengarry Highlanders, 272. 
Goldie, John, 262. 
Gourhiy, Robi'rt, 15, 195, 200. 
Gramni ir SchooL' grants, 27. 
Grimsby, 45. 

HARMON, Rev. Thos., 164. 
Harness-makers, 133. 
Hariington, Jos., 62. 
Hay-forks, Horse-power, 90. 
Heights — 

Elevation, 14. 

Formation, 9-14. 

Fossils, 12. 

French name, 25. 

Old Kingston Road, 114. 

Strata, 15. 
Helli well family, 54. 
Heron, Samuel, 37. 
Heron, Andrew, 36. 
Hidden money, 41. 
High farming, 64. 
Highland Chief, The, 49. 
Highland Cr ek Village, 224. 
Hind, Piof H. Y., 10. 
[linde, G. J., 11. 
Home District — 

Board of Edu ation, 195. 

First Council 118. 

Original liiuits, 118. 

Roads appropri.itions, 119, 1'20. 

Township representation, 118. 
Horses, Rebels', 209. 
Horsey, Samuel, 60. 
Hough's Cnrnevs, 55. 
Hough, John, 55. 
Hon>e, early, De-cription of, 126. 
Hull's. General, surrender, 228. 
Humphrey, James, 58. 
Hunt, Dr. Sterry, 12. 

Bnzzer, 89. 
Cultivators, 90. 
Gang-plows, 90. 
Hussey reapers, (-8, 89. 
Im])roved ploughs and harrows, 

Modern lightness, 90. 
Mowt-rs, 89, 90. 
No. 4 plough, iS8. 
Reapers, side delivery, 89. 
Root-cutters, 90. 
Sowing machines, 90. 



Implements — 

Self-rakers, 89. 

Separators, 89. 

Steam thresher, 89. 

Wild-goose harrow, 88. 
Indians — 

Algonkin, 19-24. 

Huron-Iroquois, 19-21. 

Mississauga camp, 23. 

Relics, 23. 
Indian woman and Mrs. Thomson, 

lonson, James,. 57. 

JACKSON family, 57. 
Jackson, Rev. James, 164. 
Jenkins, Rev. Wm., 137. 
Jogues, 173. 

Jones, Surveyor Augustus, 26, 27. 
Jones, James, 53. 

KELVIN Grove Farm, 92. 
Kennedy, James, 47. 
Ketchum, Jesse, 46. 
Kings' birthdays, 107. 
King's birthday drill, 233. 
Kingston Street, 113, 115. 
Knowles, Anna, 47. 

Soap, 47. 
Knowles, William, 45. 
Koonet fireplace, 103. 

LADIES' Missionary Association, 

Laing, Rev. John, 149, 150, 155: 
Lalemant, 173. 
L'Amaroux Settlement, 266. 
LaSalle, 173. 
Lawn tennis, 260. 
Lawyers, native, 206. 
Lawyers — 

Badgerow, G. W., 215. 

Bain, John, 215. 

Baird, J., 216. 

Gibson, T. A., 214. 

Hall, M. A., 215. 
Leicester sheep, 75. 
Letters — 

Lieut. -Governor's, 281. 

Minister of Education's, 282. 

O. A. Howland's, 283. 

Principal Grant's, 283. 

Dr. Scadding's, 284. 
Lewis, Rev. J. P., 166. 

Lewis Lumber Company, 43. 
Libraries, Public, 109, 197. 
Scarboro Public Library, 198. 

Books, Number of, 201. 

Building, New, 202. 

Building, Old, .01. 

Circulation, 200. 

Incorporated, 200. 

Members, First, 198. 

Officers, First, 198. 
Highland Creek Pub. Library, 202. 

Books, Number of, 204. 

Incorporated, 203. 

Officers, First, 203. 
Lockwood, Rev. Jos., 164. 
Log-house, First, 32. 
Loyalists, U. E., 27. 
Lynx, Last, shot, 271. 

MACKLIN, Marshall, 60. 
Magazine blown up, 231. 
Magistrates, 270. 
Malvern, 226. 

Chewett's, 117. 

Smith's, 117. 
Masts, 133. 
Medicines, Old, 207. 
Mennonites, 175. 
Methodist churches, 162. 
Military stores, conveyance, 113. 
Militia at Queenston Heights, 230. 
Militia forest march, 228, 229. 
Militia officers in 1836, 233. 
Absence of, 100. 

Chopping, 130. 

Flax, 105. 

Flour, 129, 131. 

Primitive, 131. 

Steam, 130. 

Old corn, 100. 

Saw, 129, 130. 
Production of, 95. 

Annual revenue, 96. 

Dairies, daily product, 95, 96. 

Efiect on farming, 96. 

Supply, Toronto, 91. 
Ministers, Native, £05. 
Ministers — 

Annis, Rev. J. W., 166. 

Bain, Rev. James, 141. 

Bangs, Rev. Dr., 164. 



Ministers — 

Beattie, Rev. J., 137. 

Bell, Rev. C. R., 159, 162. 

Bell, Rev. W., 159, 160, 161, 162. 

Brown, Rev. Jas. A., 152. 

Burnfield, Rev. G., 151, 155. 

Burt, Rev. F., 159, 161. 

Carroll, Rev. Dr., 163, 165. 

Ohisholm, Rev. J., 156. 

Corson, Rev. Robt., 164. 

Craig, Rev. R. M., 156. 

Crowell, Eev. Seth, 164. 

Crowley, Rev. Father, 174. 

Darling, Rev. W. S., 160. 

Fletcher, Rev. D. H., 150. 

Gallagher, Rev. 0. F., 175. 

Gatchel, Rev. Jos,, 164. 

George, Rev. Jas., 138, 139. 

Jenkins, Rev. Wm., 137. 

Laing, Rev. John, 149, 150, 155. 

Lewis, Rev. J. P., 166. 

Macdonald, Rev. D. B., 143, 273, 
275, 276, 280. 

McDonell, Bishop, 17i. 

McDowall, Rev. R., 137. 

McGillivray, Eev. M., 142. 

McKay, Rev. John, 152. 

McKay, Rev. R. P., 152, 155, 156. 

MoMurray, Rev. Archd., 157. 

Musson, Eev. E. H., 159, 162. 

Norris, Rev. W. H., 159. 

Owen, Rev. Henry, 159. 

Prindle, Rev. Andrew. 164. 

Proulx, Rev. Father, 174. 

Reynolds, Rev. John, 164. 

Ryerson, Rev. Egerton, 165. 

Scadding, Rev. Dr., 158, 161, 266. 

Strachan, Bishop, 159, 195. 

Tanner, Rev. Charles A., 143. 

Taylor, John, Mormon Pres., 176. 

Walker, Eev. Thaddeus, 159. 

Winstanley, Rev. Mr., 160. 

Wightman, Rev. Thos., 148, 155. 
Missionary Society, Women's For- 
eign, 145, 148, 153, 156. 
Mission, Sulpician, 26. 
Montgomery's Tavern affair, 208. 
Morgan, George, 60. 
Mormons, 268. 

Mormon missionaries, 176. 
" Mother of Scarboro," 33, 144. 
Mowers, First, 89. 
McCarthy's clearing, 59. 
Mackenzie, Wm. Lyon, 157, 195, 200. 

Musical instruments, 111. 
Municipal government — 
Lord Durham's scheme, 118. 

NAMES, Changes in, 265. 
Napanee, 50. 
Nash, William, 60. 
Nationalities of settlers, 63. 
Newspapers, Early, 108, 198. 

Colonial Advocate, 109. 

Courier, 109. 

Montreal Witness, 109. 

Mercury, 109. 

Upper Canada Ga^zette, 109. 
Norris, Rev. W. H., 159. 

OIL Company, 16-18. 

Directors, Appendix C. 
Oil-well, Strata, 11. 
Old fireplace, 104. 
Old schools, 178. 
" Old Sorrel," 47. 
Old teachers, 178. 
Old-time roasts, 103. 
"Old Yellow House," 59. 
Oliver, William, 59. 
Oldest stone house, 46 . 
Oldest brick house in Toronto, 48. 
Oven, Dutch, 103. 
Oven, Clay or brick, 104. 

PANCAKES, Buckwheat, 104, 106. 
Park, Victoria, 108. 
Parliament, First U. C, 117, 272. 
Paterson, Thomas, 56. 
Pelletier, Pierre le, 51. 
Pens, Quill, 182. 
Pens, Steel, 182. 
Penetanguishene anchor, 52. 
Petition to Sir P. Maitland, 231. 
Pherrill, Stephen, 42. 

Mrs., mail-carrier, 42. 
Phlebotomy, 207. 
Pickel, Sarah, 53. 
Pickering, 14. 
Pickering Wharf Co., 47. 
Pilkey, Peter, 51. 
Pilkey Medal, 52, 270. 
Pine-knot lights, 125. 
Pioneers' books, 108. 
Place names, 223. 
Ploughman's Association, East York, 

Ploughmen, Prize, 76-88. 



Ploughni n, Early, 81. 
Pl(>Ui;hma;-mKtches, 75. 

Fii^t, 76. 

At Cornell's, 77. 

At lot 28, Concession 9, 77. 

At Buchanan's, 77. 

At Post's, 77. 

Scarboro vs. Whitby, 78, 79. 

At Martin's, 78. 

IScarljiiro vs. Vaughan, 79. 

Lord Elyin at, 80. 

Prizes, 81-88. 

At Malcolm's, 81, 83. 

At lonson's, 83. 

At Bell's, 83. 

At London, S5. 

At Hamilt^in, 85. 

At Brooklin, 85. 

At Clark's, 85, 86. 

At Eulinton, 87. 

At Montreal. 87. 

At Milliken's, 87. 

At Lawrie's, 88. 
Plough-makers, 132. 
Plough-makers, Celebrated, 84, 85. 
Ploughs, Old-fashioned, 88. 
Polices Guy, 132, '.^08. 
Port Hope, 45, 131. 
Port Union, J 4. 
Post, Jordan, 58. 
Post-office, First, 224. 
Presbyterian churches, 136-160. 
Priests, French missionary, 173. 
Priesis, Distinguished modern, 173. 
Primitive mills, 131. 
Prindle, Rev. Andrew, 164. 
Privations, Pioneer, 34. 
Prize farms, 92. 
Pumping water, 90. 
Pumps, 133. 

QUEEN'S Birthdays, 107. 
•Quoiting, 250. 

RAMSAY, Prof. A. C. 11. 
Reapers, Hussey, 88, 89. 

Self-rakers, 89. 
Rebellion episode, 234. 
Record, First ownship, 121. 
Reeves chosen by Councils, 121. 
Richardson family,' 58. 
Rivers — 

Don, 14, 25, 129. 

Humber, 2.5, 26. 

Rivera — 

Highland Creek, 14, 25, 26,49, 128, 
^ 129. 

Katabokokonk, 26. 

Nen, 25. 

Ruuye, 14, 25, 42, 128, 129. 

St. John, 25, 26. 

Wilcott Creek, 129. 
Roads — 

Appropriations for, 119, 120. 

Dauforth, 112, 119. 

Fishery, 271 

Kennedy, 116, 271. 

Kingston, 113. 

Markham, First, 116. 

Markham Plank, 115, 120. 

Old. closed, 119. 

Old Ridge, 113, 116. 

Plank, 119. 
Root-cutters, 90. 
Ropes, bark, 105. , 
Ropes, ilax, 105. 
Rundle, Rev. W. W., 164. 
Russell, James, (foot note) 147, 187. 

ST. ANDREW'S Old Church, 138. 

St. .lolni's Church, 142. . 

St. Margaret's Church, 114. 

St. Andrew's Church, 136. 

Salmon trout, 35. 

Saw-n.ills, 129. 

Scadding's Mill, 42. 

Soadding, Rev. Dr., 158, 161, 266. 

Scarboro — 

Canada Company in, 27. 

Concessions ui, 27. 

Grammar Schools' grants in, 27. 

Junction, 226. 

King's College Grants in, 28. 

Loyalists, U. E., in, 27. 

Meaning of name, 26. 

No Indian cession of, 28. 

Pop. in 1802, 1803, 1820 and 1842, 

Soil and tillage in, 63. 

Spelling of, 26. 

Village, 224. 
Schools — 

Old, 178, 184. 

Alexandra, 194. 

Anti-ink-freezing device, (foot- 
note) 184. 

Blantyre, 194. 

Boards, Minute books of, 196. 



Schools — 

Books, Old, 182, 183. 

Case, Appleton, 195. 

Collegiate, 194. 

Discipline, Old, 180. 

Early municipal legislation, 119. 

First 185. 

Fittings, Old, 179. 

Free, 182. 

Modern improvements, 184. 

Punishments, 185. 

Kate Bill, 181. 

Sectarian Protestant, 196. 

Sections, 185-193. 

■'Squaw Village.'' 147. 

Teachers, Old, 178 
Scotland, Snns of, 218. 
Scott, Duncan C, 28. 
Secor family, :iO. 

Secor, Peter, first postmaster, 225. 
Settler.s' nationalities, 63. 
Sheep, first flock, 102. 
Ship-building, 134, 135. 
Shoemakers, 132. 
Shooting, 258. 

Signal, enemy's approach, 230. 
Simcoe, Governor, 25, 40, 272. 
Sleighs, Old, 88. 
Smith's map, 1 17. 
Smuggling, 128. 
Soap-m-iking, 104. 
Soap and the moon, 47. 
Sowing machines, 90. 
Spinners, Famous, 101. 
Splint matches, 125. 
Springs, Medicinal, 15. 

Mineral, 15. 

Other, 15, 16. 
"Squaw Village," 269. 
Staff'ord, Mrs. Betsy, 38. 
Stage coaches, 264. 
Stage drivers, 264. 
Staves and shingles, 133. 
Stephenson, George, 154. 
Stock-breeders, 75. 
Stone, Artificial, 134. 
Stores — 

Blackburn's, 222. 

Burton's, 222. 

McBeth's, 222. 

Mrs. Staff'ord's, 222. 

Sheppard's, 222. 

Tingle's, 222. 
Stove, First cooking, 266. 

Stoves, 1U3-104. 
strachan. Bishop, 159. 195. 
Straw plaiting. 101, 266. 
Sugar-busli, 105. 
Sugaring frolics, 106. 
Sugar making, 105. 
Sulky rake, 90. 
Sulpician Mission, 26. 

TABLE, Farmer's, 109. 
Tailors, 133. 
Tamiers, 133. 
Taverns — 

Annis's, 220. 

Elliot's, 114, 221. 

Gates's, 114, 220. 

Thomscm's, 38. 

Mapcs's, 120, 222. 

"William Wallace," 114. 

Malcolm's, 222. 

Sisley's, 222. 

Dowswell's, 222. 

Bell's, 221. 

Hockridge's, 221. 

AIoflFat's, 221. 

"01 I Yellow House," 59. 

"Paint d," 221. 
Teache%, First, 185. 
Tedder, 90. 
Teetotaler, First, 2(i8. 
Temperance society. First, 217. 
Temperance societies, Other, 217, 

The Mary Ann, 49. 
Thomson, Andrew, 35. 
Thomson, Archibald, 35. 
Thomson, David, 28, 30, 35, 38, 228. 
Thomson by-names, 36. 
Thomson a'-couiit book extracts, 36, 

Thomson, John, 32. 
Thomson medal, 271. 
Thomson tomb-tone, 39. 
Thomson. Janet, first white child, 

Thomson, Mrs., "Mother of Scar- 

boro," 33. 
Thomson, Mrs., and Indian woman, 

Thomson selects liis farm, 31. 
Thoroughbred stock, 75. 
Threshing machines, 89. 
Timber, Square, 133. 
Tinder boxes, 125. 



Toll-gates, 114, 115. 
"Toronto Purchase," 28. 
Township Council — 

First meeting, 120. 

Councillors' list, 122-125. 

First members, 120. 

First municipal record, 120. 
Trees, kinds, 127. 

U. E. LOYALISTS, 137, 272. 
Upper Canada, First Parliament,117. 

VICTORIA PARK, 108, 269. 
Villages and Post-offices — 

Official list, 227. 

Benlomond, 227. 

Elderslie, 227. 
Violinists, 107. 

Volunteer Company, 1861, 234. 
Volunteer Company, 1865-6,235, 236. 


Walton family, 55. 

Walton's, Mrs., marketing, 56. 

Washington, Stephen, 57. 

Water supply, 111. 

Weavers, 132. 

Wheler, John Perryman,'36. 

Woburn, 224. 

Wolf story, 270. 

Wolves, 33. 

Women's occupations, 101. 

Woodruff, Melinda, 58. " 

Workman, Dr. Joseph, 212. 

Workman's, Dr. Joseph, Report,f27. 

Workmen, A. O. U., 216. * i-^-a 


YORK, Capture of, 230. 
Young, Andrew, 15.